Heart and Neck Vessels Flashcards Preview

Health Assessment > Heart and Neck Vessels > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart and Neck Vessels Deck (29):
1

Apex of the heart

lowest superficial part of the heart

2

Apical Impulse

point of maximal impulse
note: location - usually the fourth or fifth intercostal or midclavicular line; size - normally 1x2 cm; amplitude - short, gentle tap; duration - short, usually only first half of systole

3

Base of the heart

top of the heart

4

Bradycardia

resting heart rate of under 60 bpm

5

Clubbing of the nails

deforming of the fingernails

6

Cyanosis

blue or purple color due to lack of oxygen

7

Dyspnea

difficulty or painful breathing

8

Edema

fluid buildup in the tissues, swelling

9

Erb's point

third intercostal space on the left sternal border where S2 is best auscultated

10

Murmur

abnormal turbulent blood flow, and collision occurs resulting in blowing, swooshing sound
characteristics : timing, loudness (grades i-vi), pitch, pattern, quality, location, radiation, posture
caused by a cardiac disorder

11

First heart sound (normally S1)

occurs with the closure of the AV valves (or mitral and the tricuspid valve) and signs the beginning of systole, loudest at the apex of the heart

12

Second heart sound (normally S2)

occurs with the closure of the semilunar valve (or pulmonic and aortic valves) and signals the end of systole, loudest at the base of the heart

13

Third Heart Sound (S3)

normally diastole is a silent event but in some conditions ventricular filling creates vibrations that can be heard over the chest; occurs when ventricles are resistant to fill during rapid filling; Kentucky with -ky being the third heart sound; caused by heart failure, or valvular dysfunction

14

Fourth heart sound (S4)

end of diastole, at presystole, when the ventricle is resisting to fill; caused by a ventricular dysfunction; Tennessee with ten being the fourth heart sound

15

Tachycardia

resting heart rate of over 100 bpm

16

Palpable thrill

palpable murmur, feels like a kitten purring, indicating a faulty valve.

17

Flow of Blood

Vena Cava > R Atrium > Tricuspid valve > R Ventricle > Pulmonic Valve > Pulmonary Artery > Lungs > Four Pulmonary Veins > L Atrium> Mitral Valve > L Ventricle > Aortic Valve > Aorta > Body

18

Fetal Heart

Foramen ovale - hole connecting L and R atrium; closes at birth
Ductus Arteriosus - hole connecting the pulmonary artery and the aorta; closes at birth

19

CAD risk factors (Coronary Artery Disease)

elevated cholesterol, elevated BP, Diabetes Mellitus or sugars over 130, Smoking, obesity

20

Subjective

chest pain, dyspnea, orthopnea, cough, fatigue, cyanosis, edema, nocturia, cardiac hx, family cardiac hx, personal habits

21

PQRST wave

P - depolarization of the atria
QRS complex - depolarization of the ventricles
T - repolarization of the ventricles
PR interval - time necessary for atrial depolarization plus time for the impulse to travel through the AV node to the ventricles - P wave to beginning of QRS complex

22

SA node

pacemaker of the heart

23

Bruit

blowing, swishing sound indicating blood flow turbulence due to a local vascular cause, such as atherosclerotic narrowing

24

Heave or Lift

sustained forceful thrusting of the ventricle during systole, inspection

25

Thrill

palpable vibration, feels like the throat of a cat purring, signifies turbulent

26

Orthostatic hypotension

sudden drop in blood pressure when rising to sit or stand

27

Sinus Arrhythmia

rhythm varies with the person's breathing, increasing at the peak of inspiration and slowing with expiration; normal for young adults and children

28

Pulse deficit

signals weak contraction of the ventricles. this occurs with a fib, premature beats, and heart failure.

29

Infants heart rate

Birth - heart rate between 100-180; stabilizes to 120-140 per minute; Crying - 170 + per minute, sleeping - 70-90 per minute