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Flashcards in Heart Disease Deck (86)
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1

Type of congestion where there is increased pulmonary vascularity due to increased flow of blood through the lungs

Active congestion

2

Type of congestion wherein there is increased pulmonary vascularity due to elevated pulmonary venous pressure

Passive congestion

3

4 types of pulmonary vascularity

Active, passive, decreased due to obstruction through the PA and normal vascularity

4

Most commonly encountered type of congestion that appears when a systemic to pulmonary, left to right shunt is occurring that is large enough to detect on a chest xray

Active congestion

5

Rule of thumb in increased pulmonary vascularity

Right descending PA is as large as the trachea diameter and other vessels are increased in diameter

6

Occurs when there is elevation of the pulmonary venous pressure, from LV abnormalities, mitral valve, RA (cor triatriatum), or obstruction of pulmonary venous return (TAPVR or pulmonary vein stenosis)

Passive congestion

7

Pulmonary veins enlarge and become ill-defined in passive congestion due to

Fluid leaking into the interstitial tissues of the lungs

8

Causes of decreased pulmonary vascularity

Obstruction of the right ventricular outflow at the infundibulum, pulmonary valve or main PA

9

2 Heart disease with normal blood flow and therefore normal vascularity

Coarctation of the aorta,
early cardiomyopathy

10

4 CHD that presents with asymmetric pulmonary blood flow

TOF,
tuncus arteriosus,
pulmonic stenosis and
postoperative patients

11

Asymmetric blood flow can be due to (2)

Focal pulmonary arterial stenosis (William syndrome) or
underlying lung abnormality (prematurity, congenital diaphragmatic hernia)

12

A right aortic arch can be seen in what 4 conditions

TOF,
truncus arteriosus,
double aortic arch and
right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery

13

Most commonly encountered contour abnormality of the aorta is from what condition

Coarctation of the aorta

14

Main PA can be concave along with decreased vascularity in what condition

TOF

15

Main PA can be large due to what 4 conditions

Left to right shunt,
poststenotic dilation from pulmonary valvar stenosis,
pulmonary valvular insufficiency or
pulmonary hypertension

16

What creates the figure 3 sign of coarctation of aorta

Prestenotic and postenotic dilatation of aorta

17

How many anterior ribs should be present above the diaphragmatic shadow to say you have a normally aerated chest

6

18

On lateral radiograph, cardiomegaly can be assessed by tracing a line down the anterior trachea, if the posterior aspect of the heart doesnt extend beyond this line, then what does it say

Normal. No cardiomegaly

19

If a left to right shunt is large enough, the pulmonary pressures will eventually increase and the shunt will reverse because of pulmonary hypertension, a phenomenon called

Eisenmenger physiology

20

Most common congenital heart anomaly and can be isolated or associated with more complex CHD

VSD

bicuspid aortic valve?

21

Most common form of VSD that is most commonly symptomatic

Perimembranous defects

22

Type of VSD where the membranous and muscular septum fuse

Perimembranous

23

Type of VSD that are often small, multiple, less hemodynamically significant and tend to close over time

Muscular

24

Type of VSD that is least common and occur due to an abnormal development of the conus portion of the truncus during cardiac development

Conal VSD / high membranous septal defect

25

What type of VSD is usually seen in TOF and truncus arteriosus

Conal VSD / high membranous septal defect

26

A VSD is usually not evident either clinically or radiographically due to

High pulmonary vascular resistance at birth

27

Radiographic features of VSD

Prominent LV, main PA segment enlargement and LA enlargement, increases vascularity

28

Cardiac defect most commonly missed in infancy because it is a low-pressure left to right shunt that increases as the pulmonary resistance decreases after birth

ASD

29

Radiographic features of ASD

Enlarged or prominent right heart border due to RA enlargement, extension of RV into the retrosternal space and increased pulmonary vascularity

30

Why does LA enlargement do not occur in ASD?

It acts as a passive conduit for the blood shunted from LA to RA