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First Year Cardiovascular > Heart Failure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart Failure Deck (10):
1

When does chronic heart failure occur?

When the heart is incapable of generating sufficient cardiac output to meet the demands of the body.

2

Chronic heart failure is predominantly seen at what age?

Elderly

3

What is acute heart failure?

Sudden loss of cardiac function

4

What can acute heart failure cause?

Pulmonary congestion
Oedema
Cardiogenic shock

5

Most common cause of heart failure?

Impaired ventricular contraction with an ejection fraction below 45%. Usually due to ischaemic heart disease.

6

What causes diastolic fracture?

Impaired filling, caused by reduced ventricular compliance (e.g. hypertrophy or fibrosis).

7

Which heart failure is more commonly associated with ischaemic heart disease?

Left heart failure.
As ischaemic heart disease normally affects the left ventricle.

8

How is left heart failure associated with respiratory disease?

Right heart failure can be caused from chronic lung disease (Cor. Pulmonale), Pulmonary hypertension or embolism.

9

Most common cause of right heart failure?

Secondary to left heart failure.

10

What are signs of heart failure?

Raised JVP (due to increased central venous pressure)
Hepatomegaly
Peripheral oedema
Ascites
Reduced exercise tolerance
Pulmonary congestion (causing dyspnoea, orthopnoea and PND)
Cardiac dilation associated with an S3/S4 gallop rhythm.