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Flashcards in Heart/Lung Development Deck (59):
1

lining of the respiratory system is derived from which embryological tissue

endoderm

2

all respiratory tissue other than the lining is derived from which embryological tissue

mesoderm

3

expression of what gene in the foregut directs the positioning of the lung bud on the esophagus (position of the respiratory diverticulum

Tbx4

4

the lung bud begins as an outgrowth of the foregut into surrounding splanchnic mesoderm. what does the foregut become in a developed fetus?

esophagus

5

what structure separates the esophagus from the trachea

tracheoesophageal septum

6

what structure dictates entry to the digestive versus the respiratory system

epiglottis

7

improper formation of the tracheoesophageal septum between trachea and esophagus leads to what clinical abnormality

tracheoesophageal fistula

8

the diverticulum forming the lung bud arises on the ___ side of the foregut during development

ventral

9

a(n) ____ is an abnormal opening between two structures whereas a(n) ___ is an abnormal closing between structures

fistula, atresia

10

high volume of amniotic fluid is called _____ and could mean the fetus has CNS problems or what gastrointestinal abnormality

polyhydramnios, esophageal atresia

11

there are the same number of secondary bronchi as there are ____ in the lungs

lobes

12

the embryological ________ differentiates into smooth muscle, nerves, and blood vessels of the lungs

splanchnic mesoderm

13

infants in what stage of development (wk 17-26) are capable of surviving outside the womb because lung formation is nearly complete

canalicular

14

what are the stages in lung development

embryonic,
pseudo-glandular
,canalicular*
terminal sac
,postnatal

15

stage of lung development where initial formation of respiratory diverticulum occurs and lasts until all bronchopulmonary segments have formed (differentiation of the pleura)

embryonic stage

16

stage of lung development where duct systems within bronchopulmonary segments form and grow (still no gas exchange)

pseudo-glandular stage

17

Most essential stage of lung development where we get formation of respiratory bronchioles and terminal sacs/ primitive alveoli. vascularization increases

canalicular stage

18

epithelium lining alveoli develop into what type of specialized cell that form part of blood-air barrier

type I pneumocytes

19

epithelium lining alveoli develop into what type of specialized cell that secrete surfactant

type II pneumocytes

20

stage of lung development where 90% of alveoli have formed and septation of those alveoli occurs

postnatal phase (alveolar)

21

issues in lung development that result in labored breathing, deficient surfactant, incomplete expansion or collapse of lung

infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)

22

complete absence of lungs, bronchi, and corresponding vasculature (can be uni- or bilateral)

pulmonary agenesis

23

poorly developed bronchial tree (possibly due to hole in the diaphragm)

pulmonary hypoplasia

24

pulmonary hypoplasia (poorly developed bronchial tree) can develop as a result of abdominal contents herniating into thoracic cavity due to this abnormality

congenital diaphragmatic hernia

25

what primitive structure eventually becomes the diaphragm

septum transversum & pleuroperitoneal membrane

26

congenital diaphragmatic hernia can be caused by failure of _______ to fuse (most commonly on left side) causing flat abdomen, breathlessness, cyanosis

pleuroperitoneal membranes

27

first system to function in a developing embryo (necessary for rapid growth)

cardiovascular

28

communications between the left and right _________ tubes provides the framework upon which the developing heart forms

endocardial

29

the embryonic heart receives input from which 3 systems? which of these will be maintained and reworked for the functioning adult heart?

cardinal*
umbilical
vitelline

30

the embryonic vascular circuit is made of aortic arches that connect to ________ which subdivide to supply the entire embryo

dorsal aortae

31

embryonic circuit that supplies and drains yolk sac while it functions to create blood cells

vitelline arteries and veins

32

embryonic circuit that facilitates exchange of blood between mom and baby

umbilical (placental) circuit

33

adult structure corresponding to embryonic truncus arteriosus

aorta, pulmonary trunk

34

adult structure corresponding to embryonic bulbs cordis

smooth part of right (conus cords) and left (aortic vestibule) ventricles

35

adult structure corresponding to embryonic primitive ventricle

trabeculated part of right and left ventricle

36

adult structure corresponding to embryonic primitive atrium

right and left auricles

37

adult structure corresponding to embryonic sinus venosus

smooth part of right atrium, coronary sinus, oblique vein of left atrium

38

structure that forms in the middle of a developing heart as an anchor for chamber walls and valves (dorsal and ventral blocks of tissue grow together)

endocardial cushions

39

folding in of _____ about the fulcrum causes formation of truncus arterioles, bulbus cords, and primitive atria and ventricle

aortic arches

40

primordial arterial and venous ends of the heart are brought together during folding to form transverse _____

pericardial sinus

41

condition in which the heart bends to the left instead of the right causing transposition. common, not harmful.

dextrocardia

42

failure of endocardial cushions to close causing communication between chambers

atrioventricular communis

43

the muscle portion of the ______ develops on the midline of the floor of the primitive ventricle and grows upward toward endocardial cushions and is closed by membranous portion.

intraventricular septum

44

25% of heart defects are _______ in the membranous portion which cannot close itself like the muscular portion can. can cause shunting of blood

ventricular septal defects

45

when the intertribal septum forms, it leaves a small opening called the _____ replacing the foramen secundum

foramen ovale

46

after birth the pressure in the left atrium exceeds that of the right atrium when we first inflate the lungs forcing the foramen ovale to close. when it leaves a small space we say the foramen is what

patent

47

the heart begins formation as a _____ and eventually becomes a ____ structure

2, 4 chambered

48

the right horn of the ____ enlarges as blood is shunted from left to right as systemic inflow (vitelline and umbilical) is moved to the right side in the developing heart

sinus venosus

49

the first shunt in the developing circulation system is the vitelline veins as they incorporate into the ____

liver

50

the second shunt in the developing circulation system is the ______ as it loses direct connection to the heart and joins the ductus venosus

umbilical

51

this structure is joined by the umbilical vein and bypasses the liver to deliver oxygenated blood to the developing heart

ductus venosus

52

when anterior cardinal veins become connected the new anastemosis becomes what adult vein

brachiocephalic

53

right anterior and common cardinal vein join to become what adult vein

superior vena cava

54

the lateral horn of sinus venosus becomes what adult vein

coronary sinus

55

______ are necessary to form aorticopulmonary septum as they invade ridges that form in bulbs cords and truncus arteriosus

neural crest cells

56

disease characterized by following symptoms: pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy

tetralogy of fallot

57

arterial system develops from 6 pairs of aortic arches. #__ contributes to left side of the aortic arch and #__ contributes to the pulmonary trunk

4, 6

58

the ______ closes at birth to become the ligamentum arteriosum

ductus arteriosis

59

abnormal connection between aorta and pulmonary artery in heart

patent ductus arteriosis