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Flashcards in heart practical Deck (86):
1

blunt rounded point of heart

apex

2

larger flat part

base

3

located in

thoracic cavity

4

formed by the pericardium

pericardial caivty

5

anchors heart within mediastinum

pericardial cavity

6

2 layers of pericardium

fibrous and serous

7

tissue that surrounds the heart

pericardium

8

tough fibrous outer layer of CT
layer of pericardium

fibrous

9

inner layer of epithelial cells
layer of pericardium

serous

10

portion of the serous pericardium lining the fibrous pericardium

Parietal pericardium –

11

portion covering the heart

Visceral pericardium or Epicardium –

12

– produced by serous pericardium
-helps reduce friction as the heart moves within the pericardium

pericardial fluid

13

separates atria from ventricles

Coronary sulcus –

14

grooves which indicate the division between right and left ventricles

Anterior and posterior interventricular sulcus –

15

Veins carrying blood to the heart

superior and inferior vena cava
pulmonary veins

16

Arteries carrying blood away from the heart

aorta and pulmonary trunj

17

-receive blood from veins
-primarily function as reservoirs
-contraction of the__ forces blood into the ventricles

atria

18

Right atrium receives blood through 3 major openings:

SVC, IVC, Coronary sinus

19

Left atrium receives blood through

pulmonary veins

20

partition separating the two atria

Interatrial septum –

21

– pumps blood into pulmonary trunk

right ventricle

22

pumps blood into aorta

left ventricle

23

- partition separating the two ventricles

Interventricular septum

24

between right atrium and right ventricle and between left atrium and left ventricle
-allow blood to flow from the atria

Atrioventricular valves –

25

cone-shaped, muscular pillars in each ventricle

Papillary muscles –

26

– three, pocketlike semilunar cusps
-possessed by aorta and pulmonary trunk

semilunar valves

27

– plate of CT
-consists of fibrous rings that surround the AV and semilunar valves

cardiac skeleton

28

– supply blood to the wall of the heart
-originate from the base of the aorta

coronary arteries

29

3 Major Branches of left coronary artery

1. Anterior interventricular artery
2. Circumflex artery
3. Left marginal artery

30

Major Branches of right coronary artery

1. Posterior interventricular artery
2. Right marginal artery

31

– large vein located within the coronary sulcus on the posterior aspect of the heart

coronary sinus

32

heart wall layer
– thin, serous membrane forming the smooth outer surface of heart
-simple squamous epithelium over a loose CT and adipose tissue

epicardium

33

heart wall layer
– thick, middle layer
-composed of cardiac muscle cells
-responsible for contraction of heart chambers

myocardium

34

– smooth inner surface
-simple squamous epithelium over CT
-allows blood to move easily through the heart
-forms the heart valves

endocardium

35

– ridges and columns of cardiac muscle that modify surface of the interior walls of ventricles

Trabeculae carneae

36

fraction of the heart pointing to the left

2/3

37

thickest layer of heart wa,ll

myocardium

38

heart wall layer for blood clotting

endocardium

39

backflow

regurgitation

40

alternate constriction and dilatation of artery

pulse

41

pulse is readily palpable at

radial artery

42

pulse rate is reported as

number of beats per minute

43

first heart sound

lubb

44

2nd heart sound

dupp

45

heart valves involved in 1st HS

AV Valve

46

heart valves involved in 2nd HS

SL valves

47

abnormal rapid resting heartbeat
over 100beats per minute

tachycardia

48

abnormal rapid resting heartbeat
under 50 beats per minute

bradycardia

49

volume of S1

louder

50

volume of S2

softer

51

pitch of S1

Lower

52

pitch of S2

Higher

53

duration of S1

shorter

54

duration of S2

faster (?)

55

length of one cardiac cycle

60 sec divided by number of beats per minute

56

consists of events that occur from the start of one period of systole to the beginning of the next period of systole

cardiac cycle

57

pulse is commonly detected in the

radial and carotid arteries

58

peak pressure obtained during each cardiac cycle

systolic pressure

59

measure of the force of myocardial contraction

systolic pressure

60

lowest pressure reached just before the next beat

diastolic pressure

61

measure of peripheral resistance + elastic recoil of blood vessels

diastolic pressure

62

measuring arterial blood pressure inhumans with the use of sphygmomanometer

sphygomamonmetry

63

grade of 0-10 petechiae

1+

64

grade of 11-20 petechiae

2+

65

GRADE OF 21-50 petechiae

3+

66

51 and above

4+

67

measures ability of capillary walls to resist pressure

capillary resistance test

68

method used in capillary resistance test

tourniquet test
rumpel-leede test
hess test

69

normal bp by which the capillaries will resist

100 mmHG

70

a condition in which capillaries rupture at 100mmHg

thrombocytopenic purpura

71

tiny spots appearing due to purpura

petechiae or hemorrhages

72

excess flow of blood in a certain area of the body

hyperemia or congestion

73

type of hyperemia due to increased blood flow to a specific area or due to dilatation of blood vessels

active hyperemia

74

slowing down of venous return

passive hyperemia

75

size of finger during active hyperemia

bigger

76

size of finger during passive hyperemia

smaller

77

temp felt during active H

hotter

78

TEMP felt during passive H

colder

79

Myocardial ridges that give honey combed appearance to the anterior wall of right atrium

Musculi pectinati

80

Separates right and left atria

Interatrial septum

81

Hole in the interatrial septum of a fetal heart

Foramen ovale

82

A connective tissue membrane formed when the foramen ovale closes

Fossa ovalis

83

Muscle ridges in the right and left ventricles

Trabeculae carneae

84

Type of serous pericardium that covers cavity

Parietal

85

Type of serous pericardium that covers heart

Visceral

86

sensation felt in active and passive H

numbness

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