Heart Sounds Flashcards Preview

Cardio Block > Heart Sounds > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart Sounds Deck (16):
1

What is S1

closing of the mitral valve

2

What is S2

closing of the aortic valve

3

What is S3? What does it imply?

a mid-diastolic dull, low pitched sound of volume overload. results from tensing of the chordae tendinae during rapid expansion. "What THE hell" implies volume overload (e.g. mitral regurg, CHF)

4

What is S4? What does it imply?

a late diastolic, dull, low-pitched sound of the atria contracting against a stiffened ventricle. "Badum bump" implies pressure overload (e.g. MI, LV hypertrophy)

5

What is physiological splitting and why does it occur?

S2 splits in A2 +P2 on inspiration. Inspiration lowers the intrathoracic pressure, more blood returns to the right heart and it takes longer for the pulmonary valve to close. On expiration you should hear only S2.

6

What is wide, fixed and paradoxical splitting? Possible etiologies?

A image thumb
7

What is an ejection click?

sound of the aortic/pulmonic valves opening. heard in early systole. results from stenosis of the aortic/pulmonary valve.

8

What is an opening snap?

Heard in diastole, it is the sound of the mitral/tricuspid valve opening. It results from stenosis of the mitral/tricuspid valve (e.g. rheumatic fever) and is easily confused with a split S2

9

How are systolic murmurs graded?

A image thumb
10

How are diastolic murmurs graded?

A image thumb
11

What are the five general causes of murmurs?

  1. flow across a partial obstruction
  2. more flow than usual
  3. ejection into a dilated chamber
  4. regurgitant flow across an incompetent valve
  5. abnormal shunting from a high to a low pressure chamber. 

12

What are the general characteristics of murmurs?

Murmurs are described by their timing, intensity, pitch, shape, location, radiation, and response to maneuvers.

13

What is a pansystolic, uniform and late systolic murmur?

A image thumb
14

When in the cardiac cycle are the following murmurs:

  • aortic stenosis
  • aortic regurg

Stenotic: systolic

Regurg: diastolic

15

When in the cardiac cycle are the following murmurs:

mitral stenosis
mitral regurg

Stenosis: diastolic

Regurg: systolic

16

When in the cardiac cycle are the following murmurs?

  • PDA
  • VSD

PDA: systole and diastole

VSD: systole