Heath protection and Epidemiology of infectious disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Heath protection and Epidemiology of infectious disease Deck (26):
1

Define incubation period

Time between exposure to pathogen and presentation of symptoms

2

What is the aim of health protection?

Protect the public from communicable diseases and health risks associated with non-communicable environmental hazards

3

Name 4 agencies involved with control of communicable disease

HPA

FSA

Local authorities

Department of health

PCTs

Water companies

4

What is the epidemiological triad?

Model of the cause of infectious disease

Agent factors (microorganism)

Host factors (susceptibility, genetic, socioeconomic, lifestyle)

Environmental (climate, surroundings, services)

5

Define reservoir

Where the agent lives, grows and multiplies. Can be human, animal or environment

6

What are the factors involved in a chain of infection? 

Reservoir of agent

Portal of exit

Mode of transmission

Portal of entry

Susceptibility of the host

7

Name two direct modes of transmission of infection

Touch

Droplet (airborne, faecal-oral)

8

Name three indirect modes of transmission of infection

Vehicle: food, fomites, blood

Vector: biological, mechanical

Airborne: dust, aerosols

9

What are the key concepts in the control of infection?

Control the source

Control transmission

Protect susceptible individuals by immunisation or prophylactic antibiotics

10

Name three global health protection issues

Malaria

HIV/AIDs

TB

Hepatitis C

Dengue

Ebola

11

Describe the factors that influence global health protection

Travel and migration: increase in international trade and migration affect incidence of certain disease e.g. TB, malaria, HIV, enteric fever more common in migrants. Human behaviour and lifestyle affects spread of disese e.g. STDs, Hepatitis

Change in environment and land use: acess to inaccessible land increases exposure to animals and insects carrying disease e.g. ebola, lassa fever

Climate change: affects vector breeding and insect/animal resovoirs/habitat.

Microbial adaption: antibiotic resistance

 

12

What is surveillance?

Continued monitoring of the occurence and spread of a disease

This is then interpreted and results are disseminated to relevant bodies so action can be taken.

13

What are the benefits of surveilance?

Ongoing

Consistent

Timely

Accurate

Complete

14

What is the purpose of surveillance?

Individual case management to prevent spread

Measures changes in incidence

Tracks changes in occurence and risk factors

Target interventions

Evaluate control measures

Provide information for emerging new infections of public health importance

15

Why do epidemics occur?

Increase in amount or virulence of an agent

Introduction of agent into a new setting

Enhanced mode of transmission

Increase in host susceptibility

Increase in host exposure

New portals of entry

16

How are outbreaks defined?

Two or more linked cases

Increase in background rate

Single case of rare or serious disease

Microbial or chemical contamination of food or water.

17

Why is it important to investigate outbreaks?

To reduce primary cases

Reduce secondary cases

Prevent similar outbreaks in future

Prosecution/compensation

Research

Teaching

18

What are the immediate control measures for an outbreak?

Controlling the source of infection

Interruption transmission

Protecting those at risk

19

Define sensitivity

How often a test is positive in a person who actually has the disese being tested

20

Define specificity

How often a test is negative in people who don't have the disease being tested

21

Positive predictive value

True positives/ true positives and false positives

22

Negative predictive value

True negatives/ true negatives and false negatives

23

What is descrptive epidemiology

Describes disease in context of time, person and place

24

Define latent period

Inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness

25

Describe the steps involved in the management of outbreak investigation

Detection: case reports, complaints, surveillane

Confirming the diagnosis: clincal /lab diagnosis. Quantify extent of outbreak

Control measures: control the source, interrupt transmission, protect those at risk

 

26

Define infectious period

The period of time and infected individual is able to transmit a pathogen to a susceptible host

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