Hema Lab 2nd Prelim Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hema Lab 2nd Prelim Deck (74):
1

How many development stages does the rbc have

6

2

Young nucleus is reddish and becomes

Bluer as the cell ages

3

Which are larger, immature cells or mature

Immature cells

4

Cytoplasm of an immature cells appears ...

Blue

5

Nuclear chromatin is ... in the imature cells

Fine and lacy

6

Development and maturation of the erythrocytes

Erythropoieses

7

Functions of erythropoiesis

Build the cell
Storage of substances
Proper utilization

8

Glycoprotein hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis and can cross the placental barrier

Erythropoietin

9

Produced by the kidneys in response to low oxygen in cells
The first human hematopoietic growth factor

Erythropoietin

10

Other name for rubriblast

Pronormoblast

11

Other name for prorubricyte

Basophilic normoblast

12

Other name for Rubricyte

Polychromatophilic normoblast

13

Other name for metarubricyte

Orthochromatic normoblast

14

Other name for reticulocyte

Polychromatophilic erythrocyte

15

Other name for erythrocyte

Normocyte

16

All hematopoietic lines are derived from the original ...

Pluripotent stem cell

17

Pluripotent stem cell becomes ...

CFU-GEMM
Colony forming unit
Granulocyte-erythrocyte monocyte-megakaryocyte

18

Pronormoblast nucleus

Round
Contains 1-2 nucleoli
Dark appearing
Fine chromatin pattern

19

Pronormoblast cytoplasm

Stains distinctive blue
Lacks granules

20

Pronormoblast
N:C ratio
Size
Cell division

8:1
12-25 um
1 rubriblast = 2 prorubricyte

21

Basophilic normoblast nucleus

Chromatin becomes more clumped
Appears dark violet
No nucleoli

22

Basophilic normoblast cytoplasm

Basophilic with a wright stain

23

Basophilic normoblast
N:C ratio
Size
Cell division

6:1
12-17 um
1 prorubricyte = 4 rubricyte

24

Polychromatophilic normoblast nucleus

Increasingly clumped

25

Polychromatophilic normoblast cytoplasm

Pink coloration
Muddy like
Light gray appearance
Basophilic

26

Polychromatophilic normoblast
N:C ratio
Size
Cell division

4:1
11-15 um
1 rubricyte = 2 metarubricyte

27

Orthochromatic normoblast nucleus

Tightly condensed
Pyknotic
(Nucleated RBC)

28

Orthochromatic normoblast cytoplasm

Acidophilic
Reddish pink
Large quantities of hemoglobin

29

Orthochromatic normoblast
N:C
Size

1:2
8-12um

30

Polychromatophilic erythrocyte cytoplasm

Blue appearance

31

Polychromatophilic erythrocytes occurs in the

Bone marrow (2-3 days)
Circulating blood (1-2 days)

32

Polychromatophilic erythrocyte size

7.2 um x 2 um thickness

33

Erythrocyte notes

Biconcave, disc-shape
Central palor 1/3 of the cell
Reddish pink
No nucleus, no organelles
Transports O2 and CO2
16 rbc in 1 rubriblast

34

Erythrocyte functions

Facilitates O2 and CO2 transport function
Plasma membrane is more elastic than latex
Tensile strength greater than steel

35

Membrane composition and structure

Lipids
Proteins
Enzymes

36

Acts as sealer and allows cell interaction of RBC

Phospholipids

37

Outer layer seal (phospholipids)

Phosphatidylcholine
Sphingomyelin

38

Inner layer seal (phospholipids)

Phosphatidylserine
Phosphatidylethanolamine

39

Enzymes needed for phospholipids

Flippase
Floppase
Scramblase

40

Regulates membrane fluidity and selective permeability in maintaining surface area

Cholesterol

41

Protein functions

Makes up the cell skeletal structure
Act as receptors for transferrin
Antigenic determinant in blood grouping

42

It is in bilipid layer
Regulates cell shape
Mantains viscoelasticity

Peripheral protein
(Spectrin and actin)

43

Contains sialic acid giving red cell a negative charge

Integral protein (GP Band 3)

44

Controls active transport
Maintains intra/extracellular ratio of Na and K

Na K ATPase

45

Enzyme that Helps regulate stabilize membrane phospholipid structure

Ca Mg ATPase

46

Hemoglobin has ... viscosity

Low

47

Abnormal viscosity may cause

Precipitation
Polymerization
Crystallization

48

Two sites of Hb molecule particularly prone to oxidation

Iron atom in the heme ring
Sulfhydryl groups on the globin chain

49

Sources of energy

Glucose - principal source
Galactose, fructose, mannose
Glycogen -not normally

50

2 important pathways

Embden-meyerhof
Hexose monophosphate shunt

51

Other name for hexose monophosphate shunt

Pentose phosphate shunt

52

Anaerobic process of generation through which glucose is metabolize as lactose

Embden-meyerhof pathway

53

3 important intermediate

2,3 biphosphoglycerate
Adenosine triphosphate
NAD+ and NADH

54

Assists in modulating oxygen transport in the cell

2,3 biphosphoglycerate

55

Maintains membrane shape
Provides energy for AT
Assists 2,3 DPG

Adenosine triphosphate

56

Acts as coenzyme with methemoglobin reductase and reduce methemoglobin to hemoglobin

NAD+
NADH

57

Primary purpose is to provide reducing potential for the cell by generating NADPH (reduces glutathione)

Hexose monophosphate shunt

58

Senescent rbc and abnormal rbc are removed through what process

Culling

59

It is where phagocytes destroy rbc

Monocyte-macrophage system

60

Red cell inclusions are first removed by the process called

Pitting

61

Types of hemoglobin

Oxyhemoglobin -bright red (arterial blood)

Reduced hemoglobin - dark red (venous blood) contains CO2

62

Abnormal hemoglobin

Methemoglobin
Sulfhemoglobin
Carboxyhemoglobin

63

Contains ferric state iron
Bluish
Reversible state

Methemoglobin

64

Causes of methemoglobin

Reduce NADH
Reduce glutathione
10% methemoglobin causes hypoxia and cyanosis

65

Oxidized by
Sulfonamides
Phenacetin
Acetanilide
Phenazopyridine

Has greenish pigment

Sulfhemoglobin

66

Causes of sulfhemoglobin

Severe constipation
Clostridium perfringens
Interogenous cyanosis

67

Combination of carbon monoxide with heme iron

Odorless/colorless

Brilliant cherry red

Carboxyhemoglobin

68

Measurement of hemoglobin

Electrophoresis
Solubility testing
Denaturation testing

69

Each hemoglobin carries ...

1.34ml of oxygen

70

Embryonic globin chains

Portland (z+g)
Gower-1 (z+e)
Gower-2 (a+e)

71

Myeloid globin chains

Hemoglobin F (a+g)

72

Birth globin chains

F (a+g)
A (a+b)

73

Adult globin chains

F (a+g)
A (a+b)
A2 (a+d)

74

Center of hemoglobin

2,3 diphosphoglycerate