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β–Ί Med Misc 05 > HEMA LEC - Phlebotomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in HEMA LEC - Phlebotomy Deck (47):
1

Double oxalate

Salts of ammonium & potassium(NH4K) in 3:2 ratio

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ratio of ammonium to potassium in double oxalate

3:2 ratio

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Ammonium oxalate only –

RBC swelling

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Potassium oxalate only –

shrinkage of RBC

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type of oxalate used for coagulation studies

Sodium oxalate

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-for RBC ct., Hgb, Hct, ESR (all RBC evaluation tests since there is no effect on RBCs)

oxalates

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only an in vitro anticoagulant,

Oxalates –

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3 forms of oxalate

1. Double oxalate – most common
2. Lithium oxalate – collecting bloody body fluids
3. Sodium oxalate – coagulation studies

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recommended amount when using oxalate

1 – 2 mg/ml of blood

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oxalate color

gray

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oxalate MoA

binds Ca

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citrate MoA

binds Ca

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most common oxalate

Double oxalate

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oxalate for collecting bloody body fluids

lithium oxalate

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other names of oxalate (3)

Balance oxalate, Wintrobe fluid, Paul-Heller’s fluid

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oxalate not for blood transfusion because

it’s toxic

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Causes agglutination or clumping of WBC & platelets hence causing erroneous counting

oxalate

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Not recommended for peripheral blood smear because it has same ill effects EDTA when used for more than 2 hours

oxalate

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oxalate has has same ill effects with ??? when used for more than 2 hours

EDTA

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– most commonly used for OFT (sickle cell anemia) & immunophenotyping

heparin

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recommended amount when using heparin


β€’ 10-20 units/ml of blood

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color of heparin

green

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β€’ MoA of heparin

inihibits thrombin

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β€’ 2 Forms of heparin

1. Lithium heparin
2. Sodium heparin

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heparin
 Not recommended for coagulation studies because

it affects all stages of blood coagulation

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heparin
Not recommended for blood smear preparation because It

causes blue background when stained with Romanowsky stains

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heparin
Not for WBC count, causes

agglutination of WBCs

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heparin
Not for Plt ct.

enhances platelet aggregation

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most expensive additive

heparin

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– most common & preferred for coagulation studies

Citrates

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citrate color

light blue

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blood anticoagulant ratio for light blue

3.2% or 0.109 M NaCitrate (9:1)

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blood anticoagulant ratio for black for standard westergreen method for ESR

0.105M NaCitrate (4:1)

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β€’ Changes in old EDTA blood:

o Vacuolization of leukocyte cytoplasm
o Artefact/crystal formation
o Phagocytosis of crystals by WBCs
o Cloverleafing of WBC nucleus
o RBC crenation
o Platelet disintegration

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β€’ Platelet may adhere to neutrophils In old EDTA blood, phenomenon called

PLATELET SATELLITISM

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β€’ Standard time for EDTA:

2 hrs

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β€’ Not recommended for coagulation studies BC

(interferes with fibrinogen-thrombin reaction)

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β€’ Recommended amount of EDTA:
β€’

1.2 mg/ml of blood

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Uses of EDTA:

RBC, WBC Hgb, Hct, ESR, Plt, Peripheral smear

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β€’ 3 forms of EDTA

i. Dipotassium EDTA – most soluble, hence preferred
ii. Disodium EDTA
iii. Tripotassium EDTA

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EDTA MoA

β€’ MoA: binds the non-ionized Ca then chelates Ca molecules in a complex (No Calcium no clotting)

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– chemical substance which interferes in blood coagulation through various mechanisms

Anticoagulant

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Orange
-faster clotting than usual red tube (usual clotting time: 10-15 mins)
- with clot activator (opposite of anticoagulant)

Rapid Serum Tube

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Gold
-with gel that separates serum from RBC when centrifuged

SST (Serum separator tube)

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Keynotes to Remember in Venipuncture

needle insertion
needle gauge
tourniquet

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Prolonged application of tourniquet may lead to

hemoconcentration

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Methods of blood collection through Venipuncture

1. Syringe method – open system, two-way needle
2. Evacuated tube method – closed system, less exposure to air
-evacuated tube: with vacuum

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