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Flashcards in Hematology Deck (80):
1

hematopoiesis

-formation of blood

2

erythropoiesis

-formation of RBC

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most blood matures in the _____

-bone marrow

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Blood Components

-plasma
-cellular components

5

Plasma

-55-60% of blood
-fluid component

6

Organic and inorganic componenets of arterial plasma include:

-water
-electrolytes
-proteins
-gases
-nutrients
-waste products
-hormones

7

Blood Proteins

-albumin
-gamma globulins/antibodies
-alpha/beta globulins
-fibrinogen

8

Albumin

-regulate passage of water and solutes through capillaries
-binding protein for all lipid-soluble blood constituents, hormones and drugs

9

Concentration of Albumin

-4 g/dl
-reduced suggests hepatocellular injury

10

Gamma Globulins

-antibodies
-synthesized by lymphocytes
-defend against micro-organisms

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Alpha/Beta Globulins

-transport Proteins

12

Fibrinogen

-promotes coagulation
-stops bleeding from blood vessels

13

Serum

-plasma with removed fibrinogen (clotting factor)

14

Composition of Plasma:
Water

92%

15

Composition of Plasma:
Protein

6-8%

16

Composition of Plasma:
Salts

0.8%

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Composition of Plasma:
Lipids

0.6%

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Composition of Plasma:
Glucose

0.1%

19

cellular components of blood

-thrombocytes (platelets)
-Erythrocytes (RBC)
-Leukocytes (WBC)--5 types

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5 types of leukocytes

-neutrophils
-eosinophils
-basophils
-lymphocytes
-monocytes

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Granulocytes

-neutrophils
-eosinophils
-basophils

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Agranulocytes

-lymphocytes
-monocytes

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RBC Function

-transport gas to and from tissue cells and lungs

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Normal RBC Count

-4.4-5.3 million/mm3 of circulating blood

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Hematocrit Levels

Male: 37-49%
Female: 36-46%

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Hemoglobin Levels

Male: 14-18 gm/100ml
Female: 13-16 gm/100ml

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WBC

-body's defense mechanism

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WBC Count

-4,500-11,000/mm3 of circulating blood
-high=infection
-low=immunocompromised

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Platelets

-thrombocytes
-irreg shaped cytoplasmic fragments that provide hemostasis after vascular injury
-normal coag and clot formation

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Platelet Counts

-150,000-400,000 platelets/mm3 of circulating blood

31

Stem Cell System

-multipotential stem cells form in bone marrow
-some formed in blood, umbilical cord and placenta

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Stem cells formed in the ____

-bone marrow

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Stem cells migrate to ______to mature

-bone marrow or blood stream

34

During maturation blood cells differentiate into ______

-granulocytes, thrombocytes, erythrocytes
-and they proliferate

35

2 mechanisms for maturation

-proliferation (multiplication)
-differentiation (specialization)

36

Blood Granulocyte Levels

-4000-6000 cells/microliter

37

Prone to infection if blood granulocytes levels are below _____

-1000 cells/microliter

38

Erythropoietin

-(glycoprotein)
-hormone from kidney that stimulates uncommited stem cells to differentiate into proerythroblasts (precursor of RBC)

39

Oxyhemoglobin

-O2 carrying hemoglobin
-4 sites full=saturated

40

Reduced hemoglobin

-hemoglobin without oxygen
-(deoxyhemoglobin)

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as Hb relseases its O2 into tissue it also sheds small amounts of ____

-nitric oxide
-dilates the blood vessels to help O2 get into tissues

42

Each RBC can carry ____ Hb molecules

-300 molecules

43

Hb synthesis requires:

-formation of protoporphyrin
-availability of iron (heme)
-production of proteinaceous globulin

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Leukocytes develop from____

-stem cells in bone marrow

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granulocytes mature in ____

bone marrow

46

agranulocytes mature in _____

blood stream

47

Growth factors control _____

-cell growth and differentiation

48

Platelet formation

-involves endomitosis w/o cytoplasm division
-daughter cells break off in fragments

49

endomitosis

-mitosis of nucleus
-(doubling of DNA)

50

Platelets live ____ days

10 days

51

Normal Coagulation and Lysis depends on

-balance between thrombin and plasmin

52

Clinical exam

-physical appearance (color)
-level of energy
-blood tests
-bone marrow aspiration
-serologic studies for antibodies
-tests for vitamins
-schilling test (measure Vitamin B12)

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Bone marrow componenets

-blood cells
-adipose tissue

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blood tests give info about:

-absolute and relative # of blood cells
-shape of cells
-functional characteristics of blood cells

55

CBC

-complete blood count
-calc percentage of WBC , RBC, platelets, hematocrit, Hb

56

Low RBC indicate:

-leukemia
-bone marrow failure
-hemorrhage

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High RBC indicate

-polycythemia vera
-pulmonary fibrosis
-cor pulmonale
-renal disease

58

Mean Corpuscle Volume

-size RBC

100: macrocytic

59

Blood Tests Related to RBC

-RBC count
-mean corpuscle volume
-mean corpuscular Hb concentration
-Hb determination
-hematocrit determination
-sedimentation rate (ESR)
-reticulocyte count
-Hb electrophoresis
-Sickle Cell test
-glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

60

Hematocrit tells you:

-fraction of blood occupied by RBC
-% RBC per dL

61

Blood Tests Related to Hb metabolism

-Serum ferritin determination
-total iron-binding capacity
-transferrin saturation
-direct antiglobulin test
-antibody screen

62

Ferritin

-iron in storage
-stored in liver
-some in muscles

63

Blood tests related to leukocytes

-neutrophil count
-lymphocyte count
-plasma cell count
-monocyte count
-eosinophil count
-basophil count

64

transferrin

-iron transport protein

65

Transferrin Saturation

-normal level is around 30

66

Blood Tests related to platelets/clotting factors

-platelet count
-bleeding time
-clot retraction time
-platelet adhesion studies
-platelet aggregation studies
-whole blood clotting time
-circulating anticoagulants
-PTT
-PT
-INR
-fibrinogen assay
-fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product

67

PTT Normal

30-40 sec

68

PT Normal

12-15 sec

69

INR Normal

0.9-1.1

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Sodium Levels

-136-145

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Potassium Levels

-3.5-5

72

Chloride Levels

100-106

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CO2 Levels

26-28

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Calcium Levels

8.5-10.5

75

Normal O2 Sat

>90%

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Common S/Sx of Circulatory Disorders

-edema/lymphedema
-congestion
-infarction
-thrombus
-embolus
-bleeding/bruising
-shock
-lymphadenopathy
-splenomegaly

77

Aging

-marrow size decreases
-dereased total serum iron
-decreased total binding capacity
-decreased intestinal iron absorption
-increase platelet adhesiveness
-increased red cell rigidity
-early activation of coag system
-decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit
-decreased # and function of lymphocytes

78

Universal donor

-O neg

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Universal receiver

- AB+

80

Blood Transfusion Reactions

-