Hematology Compre Flashcards Preview

1st term > Hematology Compre > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology Compre Deck (90):
1

normal M:E ratio

1.5:1
3.3:1

2

most common erythrocytic stage found in normal marrow

polychromatophilic
orthochromic normoblasts

3

apirate should e examined under ____________ to asses cellularity, morphology of abnormal cells and presence of tumor cells clusters

low power

4

aspirate should be examined under low power to assess ________

cellularity
morphology of abnormal cells
presence of tumor cells clusters

5

largest hematopoetic cell found in normal bone marrow aspirate

megakaryocyte

6

large cells found close to the endosteum

osteoclast

7

large cells with multiple nuclei, evenly distributed

osteoclast

8

preferred bone marrow collection site in adults

anterior or posterior iliac crest

9

most hematopoietic tissue found in adult

flat bones

10

"bony tissue"

trabeculae

11

vascular layer just within the bone

endosteum

12

bone marrow specimen consists of _______ and ________

aspirate
core biopsy specimen

13

used to identify types and proportion of cells and look for morphologic variances

aspirate

14

used to demonstrate bone architecture

core biopsy

15

also allows morphologic evaluation of bony spicules

core biopsy

16

sites for collection of bone marrow

posterior/anterior iliac crest
sternum
tibia (anterior medial surface)
spinous process of vertebrae

17

site used for both aspirate and core biopsy

posterior superior iliac crest

18

site preferred for those who can only lie supine

anterior superior iliac crest

19

exact site of collection at sternum

below angle of Lewis at 2nd ICS

20

site for only aspirates

anterior medial surface of tibia

21

rare site of coolection

spinous process of the vertebrae or ribs

22

PBS with bone marrow aspiration collected _____ actual aspiration

before

23

why is PBS collected before actual aspiration

to avoid stress-related WBC

24

fixatives for bone marrow aspirate

Zenker
B5
formalin

25

patienst's position when aspirated for bone marrow

supine
prone
lateral decubitus

26

common needle for bone marrow aspiration

Westerman-Jensen needle

27

sites for aspiration and core biopsy are _______

separate

28

which of the bone marrow specimens is collected first?

core biopsy

29

unsuccessful aspiration is called

dry tap

30

dry tap when ____________

acellular
fibrotic
packed with leukemic cells

31

good marrow smear

wedge-shaped

32

anticoagulant for aspirate smears

tripotassium EDTA

33

anticoagulant than generates least cell distortion

K3EDTA

34

reduces the occurence of smudge or basket cells

albumin

35

useful when there are sparse nucleated cells in direct marrow smear or anticipated small number of nuceated cells

buffy coat smears

36

histologic examination required the specimen to be suspended for ______

approx. 2hrs

37

suspension for histologic exam

Zenker glacial acetic acid
10% formalin
B5

38

dyes for marrow smear

Wright or Wright-Giemsa

39

alternative stain for aspirates and core biopsy

Prussian blue

40

Prussian blue is ________

ferric ferricyanide

41

bone marrow study used for identification of iron deficiency

iron stain

42

erythrocytes of newborn infants are ________ at birth

macrocytic

43

condition where erythrocytes of newborns are macrocytic

physiologic anemia of infancy

44

condition where hemoglobin in premature infants are decreased

physiologic anemia for prematurity

45

physiologic anemia of infancy occurs

first weeks of life

46

common cause of morbidity in neonates

sepsis

47

common anemia seen in elderly

anemia of chronic inflammation
iron deficiency anemia

48

other causes of anemia in elderly

B12 and folate deficiency

49

neoplastic disorders common in elderly

acute/chronic leukemia
myelodysplastic syndomes
myeloproliferative neoplasma

50

elderly are at an increased risk of ______

thrombosis

51

CBC for children dffer from adults chiefly in terms of

higher lymphocyte % in chldren

52

physiologic anemia of infancy is due to

increased oxygenation of blood
decreased erythropoietin

53

in newborns, it is easily confused with leukemic blasts

hematogones

54

as age increases, the Hb level of elderly _______

decreases

55

what are the primary principles of operation of automated cell counting instruments

electronic impedance
optical scatter

56

detects and measures changes in electrical resistance betweeen two electrodes as cell pass through a sensing aperture

electronic impedance

57

uses detection of interference in a laser beam or light source to differentiate and enumerate cell types

optical scatter/flow cytometry

58

instruments that use both impedance and RF

Sysmex

59

instruments that use impedance and optical measurements

Abbott

60

instruments that use optical flow cytometry

Siemens

61

low voltage DC is used to measure

total cell volume

62

used to measure internal compexity of cell

orthogonal cell scatter

63

does not alert operator of possible nRBCs

Coulter

64

what is seen in BM 10x objective

tumor cells in cluster
locating bony spicules

65

what is seen in BM 50x or 100x objective

M:E ratio
distinguish maturation stages

66

albumin concentration for crush smears

22%

67

layer of concentrate smears from top to bottom

yellow fat
plasma
M:E layer
erythrocytes

68

automated machine in 1950s

Coulter

69

auonated machine in 1960s

optical scanning

70

automated machine in 1970s

laser-based optical instrument

71

parts of electronic impedance machine

ext and int electrodes

72

displays generated pulses

oscilloscope screens

73

how are cells in elec. impedance counted

# of pulses = # of cells

74

factors affecring size or volume measurements

aperture diameter
protein buildup

75

site of hematopoiesis during up to 2nd month of gestation

yolk sac

76

site of hematopoiesis during up to 3rd or 4th month

liver

77

site of hematopoiesis duing 4th to 5th month

bone marrow

78

pediatric stage of neonate during __________

1st mo th

79

pediatric stage during 1st yr

infancy

80

pediatric stage during 1st year to puberty

childhood

81

when to consider extremely LBW

24-26wks AOG

82

when to consider full term

37-42wks

83

when is RBC count low in children

7wks

84

when is Hb low in children

9wks

85

seen RBC morphology 11wks to day 5

megaloblastic, hypochromic

86

when does nRBCs disappear in children

days 3 to 5

87

when ang physiologic anemia of infancy

1st 5-8 wks

88

MCV at birth

macrocytic

89

MCHC at birth

hypochromic

90

monocytes are _____ in neonates than adults

monocytes