Flashcards in Hematology test Deck (122):
How much blood can be safely collected from an animal?
5ml blood/ kg body weight per week
What does blood carry to body cells?
What does blood transport away from body cells?
What does blood carry to cells?
What does blood transport away from cells?
What does blood regulate?
What does blood carry from the endocrine system?
What does blood do for overall system stability?
What is an erythrocyte?
red blood cell
What is a reticulocyte?
immature red blood cell
What is a leukocyte?
white blood cell
What is hemopoiesis?
the formation of blood, particularly the cells
What is whole blood?
blood with all its components, including clotting factors
What is plasma?
the fluid portion of whole blood
What is serum?
plasma without the clotting factors, obtained from clotted samples
What are platelets?
function to stop leakage of blood
What is a Hemocytometer?
a precision instrument used for counting cells
What is CBC?
complete blood count
What is PCV?
packed cell volume: the percentage of whole blood composed of rbcs
What is Left shift?
refers to increased numbers of immature neutrophils
What is Right shift?
refers to increased numbers of hyperhsegmented neutrophils
What is -penia?
What is -philia?
What do erythrocytes do?
What do erythrocytes contain?
How many types of leukocytes are presented in blood?
Where are cellular elements of the blood produced?
bone marrow and lymphoid tissues
After delivery into the circulating blood, the cellular elements may do what?
function within the vascular system or pass into tissues
Blood elements have what?
What happens when blood elements die?
they are removed from circulation and replaced by new cellular elements
Plasma constitutes greater than what of the blood volume?
What is plasma made up of?
water, dissolved ions, carrier proteins, coagulation, proteins, immunoproteins, growth factors and numerous other compounds
Mature leukocytes has what?
Mature leukocytes may contain what?
Mature leukocytes are larger than what?
What is the function of leukocytes?
to provide defense against disease
What are the two groups of leukocytes?
granulocytes and agranulocytes
What are the types of granulocytes?
neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
What two types of neutrophils are there?
segmented or bands
What are the types of agranulocytes?
monocytes and lymphocytes
Leukocytes may vary in what slightly from species to species?
Where are leukocytes formed?
in bone marrow
What is the difference between segmented and banded neutrophils?
segmented neutrophils are mature and banded neutrophils are young
What do neutrophils do?
kill bacteria and clean up dead tissue
What is the most numerous cell found in many mammals?
what may increase numbers and inflammation of neutrophils?
stress, steroids or epinephrine
The more segmented the nucleus in a neutrophil the more what?
older the cell
What kind of granules do eosinophils have?
What kind of nucleus do eosinophils have?
What is the lifespan of a eosinophil?
When do eosinophils increase?
with parasites and allergies
What kind of granules do basophils have?
Which granulocyte is rare in most species?
What do basophils contain and produce?
Where is heparin released?
in areas of inflammation
What does heparin do?
reduce clotting of blood and lymph
What is the lifespan of monocytes?
Which agranulocyte is the largest normal cell in peripheral blood?
What kind of cytoplasm do monocytes have?
What may the cytoplasm of monocytes contain?
What is the nucleus of monocytes like?
large and indented
How big are lymphocytes?
they can be small, medium, and large
What kind of nucleus do lymphocytes have?
What kind of chromatin do lymphocytes have?
Lymphocytes have more what and less what?
more nucleus and less cytoplasm
Lymphocytes are increased in what?
What is the lifespan of lymphocytes?
Which cell is most numerous in the body?
red blood cell
What do red blood cells look like?
Where are red blood cells produced?
What is the lifespan of a rbc?
varies with species
What is the rbc lifespan in a dog?
What is the rbc lifespan in a cat?
What is the rbc lifespan in a horse?
What is the function of the rbc?
to pass respiratory pigment hemoglobin between lungs and body tissues
What is essential to rbc production?
What is a Howell-Jolly body?
a remnant of nuclear material
In what animals are Howell-Jolly bodies considered normal?
dogs, cats, young pigs
What do Heinz bodies indicate?
an oxidative injury to the red cells hemoglobin
What are Heinz bodies usually associated with?
What is Anisocytosis?
a variation in the size of RBCs
When is Anisocytosis common?
in cattle, young, and with most anemias
What is crenation?
artifact due to dehydration of the RBCs due to slow drying of blood film
What can crenation be confused with?
What are acanthocytes?
RBCs with sharp irregular points due to liver disease
What is polychromasia?
variation in chronicity of RBCs
What does hypochromic mean?
paler than normal, decreased Hb associated with iron deficiency anemia and lead poisoning
What does hyperchromic mean?
darker than normal
What is NRBC?
nucleated red blood cell, very young
What is Hemoglutination?
clumping of RBCs due to disease
How many Howell-Jolly bodies are seen in normal cats?
What can occasionally be seen in normal cats?
heinz bodies and NRBCs
What is seen in cats with the use of ketamine?
What can be disguised with emotional stress in cats?
What is the nucleus of neutrophils like in cats?
a twisted coil
What is the cytoplasm of neutrophils like in cats?
grayish with pink tinted granulation
How many banded neutrophils do cats have?
What is the nucleus of banded neutrophils like in cats?
slim with parallel sides
What are lymphocytes like in cats?
What are platelets like in cats?
small and sometimes clumped
What are cats subject to?
significant changes in WBC numbers
What is a reservoir for RBCs to be released anytime in horses?
What causes RBCs to be released from the spleen in the horse?
excitement or exercise
What should you do with collected horse blood?
What are neutrophils like in horses?
common with irregular outline
What are Eosinophils like in horses?
look like raspberries
What cell is rare in horses?
What kind of horses have basophils?
What cells are common in horses?
lymphocytes and monocytes
What are RBC's like in cattle?
unequal in size
What are banded neutrophils like in cattle?
What are eosinophils like in cattle?
granules small and round, intensely red
What percentage of the cells are lymphocytes in cattle?
What are platelets like in cattle?
What kind of supplement is needed in pigs?
What kind of cells do piglets have?
What are RBC's like in pigs?
What is common in pigs?
What is the nucleus of neutrophils like in pigs?
What are eosinophils like in pigs?
small, round granules
What cell is most numerous in sheep and goats?