Hematology test Flashcards Preview

Intro to Lab > Hematology test > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology test Deck (122):
1

How much blood can be safely collected from an animal?

5ml blood/ kg body weight per week

2

What does blood carry to body cells?

nutrients

3

What does blood transport away from body cells?

wastes

4

What does blood carry to cells?

oxygen

5

What does blood transport away from cells?

carbon dioxide

6

What does blood regulate?

body temperature

7

What does blood carry from the endocrine system?

hormones

8

What does blood do for overall system stability?

water balance

9

What is an erythrocyte?

red blood cell

10

What is a reticulocyte?

immature red blood cell

11

What is a leukocyte?

white blood cell

12

What is hemopoiesis?

the formation of blood, particularly the cells

13

What is whole blood?

blood with all its components, including clotting factors

14

What is plasma?

the fluid portion of whole blood

15

What is serum?

plasma without the clotting factors, obtained from clotted samples

16

What are platelets?

function to stop leakage of blood

17

What is a Hemocytometer?

a precision instrument used for counting cells

18

What is CBC?

complete blood count

19

What is PCV?

packed cell volume: the percentage of whole blood composed of rbcs

20

What is Left shift?

refers to increased numbers of immature neutrophils

21

What is Right shift?

refers to increased numbers of hyperhsegmented neutrophils

22

What is -penia?

decreased numbers

23

What is -philia?

increased numbers

24

What do erythrocytes do?

transport oxygen

25

What do erythrocytes contain?

hemoglobin

26

How many types of leukocytes are presented in blood?

5

27

Where are cellular elements of the blood produced?

bone marrow and lymphoid tissues

28

After delivery into the circulating blood, the cellular elements may do what?

function within the vascular system or pass into tissues

29

Blood elements have what?

fixed lifespans

30

What happens when blood elements die?

they are removed from circulation and replaced by new cellular elements

31

Plasma constitutes greater than what of the blood volume?

1/2

32

What is plasma made up of?

water, dissolved ions, carrier proteins, coagulation, proteins, immunoproteins, growth factors and numerous other compounds

33

Mature leukocytes has what?

nucleus

34

Mature leukocytes may contain what?

granules

35

Mature leukocytes are larger than what?

mature rbc

36

What is the function of leukocytes?

to provide defense against disease

37

What are the two groups of leukocytes?

granulocytes and agranulocytes

38

What are the types of granulocytes?

neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils

39

What two types of neutrophils are there?

segmented or bands

40

What are the types of agranulocytes?

monocytes and lymphocytes

41

Leukocytes may vary in what slightly from species to species?

morphology

42

Where are leukocytes formed?

in bone marrow

43

What is the difference between segmented and banded neutrophils?

segmented neutrophils are mature and banded neutrophils are young

44

What do neutrophils do?

kill bacteria and clean up dead tissue

45

What is the most numerous cell found in many mammals?

neutrophils

46

what may increase numbers and inflammation of neutrophils?

stress, steroids or epinephrine

47

The more segmented the nucleus in a neutrophil the more what?

older the cell

48

What kind of granules do eosinophils have?

red-staining

49

What kind of nucleus do eosinophils have?

segmented

50

What is the lifespan of a eosinophil?

20 minutes

51

When do eosinophils increase?

with parasites and allergies

52

What kind of granules do basophils have?

dark staining

53

Which granulocyte is rare in most species?

basophils

54

What do basophils contain and produce?

heparin

55

Where is heparin released?

in areas of inflammation

56

What does heparin do?

reduce clotting of blood and lymph

57

What is the lifespan of monocytes?

months

58

Which agranulocyte is the largest normal cell in peripheral blood?

monocytes

59

What kind of cytoplasm do monocytes have?

blue-gray

60

What may the cytoplasm of monocytes contain?

vacuoles

61

What is the nucleus of monocytes like?

large and indented

62

How big are lymphocytes?

they can be small, medium, and large

63

What kind of nucleus do lymphocytes have?

dark

64

What kind of chromatin do lymphocytes have?

dense

65

Lymphocytes have more what and less what?

more nucleus and less cytoplasm

66

Lymphocytes are increased in what?

young

67

What is the lifespan of lymphocytes?

years

68

Which cell is most numerous in the body?

red blood cell

69

What do red blood cells look like?

biconcave disc

70

Where are red blood cells produced?

bone marrow

71

What is the lifespan of a rbc?

varies with species

72

What is the rbc lifespan in a dog?

110 days

73

What is the rbc lifespan in a cat?

68 days

74

What is the rbc lifespan in a horse?

140 days

75

What is the function of the rbc?

to pass respiratory pigment hemoglobin between lungs and body tissues

76

What is essential to rbc production?

iron

77

What is a Howell-Jolly body?

a remnant of nuclear material

78

In what animals are Howell-Jolly bodies considered normal?

dogs, cats, young pigs

79

What do Heinz bodies indicate?

an oxidative injury to the red cells hemoglobin

80

What are Heinz bodies usually associated with?

anemia

81

What is Anisocytosis?

a variation in the size of RBCs

82

When is Anisocytosis common?

in cattle, young, and with most anemias

83

What is crenation?

artifact due to dehydration of the RBCs due to slow drying of blood film

84

What can crenation be confused with?

acanthocytes

85

What are acanthocytes?

RBCs with sharp irregular points due to liver disease

86

What is polychromasia?

variation in chronicity of RBCs

87

What does hypochromic mean?

paler than normal, decreased Hb associated with iron deficiency anemia and lead poisoning

88

What does hyperchromic mean?

darker than normal

89

What is NRBC?

nucleated red blood cell, very young

90

What is Hemoglutination?

clumping of RBCs due to disease

91

How many Howell-Jolly bodies are seen in normal cats?

small numbers

92

What can occasionally be seen in normal cats?

heinz bodies and NRBCs

93

What is seen in cats with the use of ketamine?

false anemia

94

What can be disguised with emotional stress in cats?

true anemia

95

What is the nucleus of neutrophils like in cats?

a twisted coil

96

What is the cytoplasm of neutrophils like in cats?

grayish with pink tinted granulation

97

How many banded neutrophils do cats have?

small numbers

98

What is the nucleus of banded neutrophils like in cats?

slim with parallel sides

99

What are lymphocytes like in cats?

mostly small

100

What are platelets like in cats?

small and sometimes clumped

101

What are cats subject to?

significant changes in WBC numbers

102

What is a reservoir for RBCs to be released anytime in horses?

spleen

103

What causes RBCs to be released from the spleen in the horse?

excitement or exercise

104

What should you do with collected horse blood?

mix frequently

105

What are neutrophils like in horses?

common with irregular outline

106

What are Eosinophils like in horses?

look like raspberries

107

What cell is rare in horses?

basophils

108

What kind of horses have basophils?

gray horses

109

What cells are common in horses?

lymphocytes and monocytes

110

What are RBC's like in cattle?

unequal in size

111

What are banded neutrophils like in cattle?

rare

112

What are eosinophils like in cattle?

granules small and round, intensely red

113

What percentage of the cells are lymphocytes in cattle?

70-80%

114

What are platelets like in cattle?

rosette- shaped

115

What kind of supplement is needed in pigs?

iron

116

What kind of cells do piglets have?

NRBCs

117

What are RBC's like in pigs?

fragile

118

What is common in pigs?

crenation

119

What is the nucleus of neutrophils like in pigs?

coiled

120

What are eosinophils like in pigs?

small, round granules

121

What cell is most numerous in sheep and goats?

lymphocytes

122

Which animal has the smallest RBC's?

goats