HEME/ONC DISORDERS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HEME/ONC DISORDERS Deck (75):
1

define Hgb

Main component of RBCs and the essential protein that combines with and transports 02

2

define Hgb

Main component of RBCs and the essential protein that combines with and transports 02

3

define Hct

Measures the % of a given volume of whole blood that is occupied by erythrocytes; the amount of plasma to total RBC mass (RBC concentration)

4

What is the mean corpuscular volume

Expression of the average volume and size of individual erythrocytes

5

Normal MCV

80-100

6

microcytic

mcv

7

macrocytic

>100

8

What is the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration?

Expression of the average Hgb concentration or the proportion of each RBS occupied by Hbg as a %

9

Normal MCHC

32-36%

10

hypochromic

mchc

11

hyperchromic

>36%

12

causes of microcytic anemia

Low MCV, IRON DEFICIENCY and thalassemia

13

Causes of macrocytic anemia

high MCV: B12 or folate deficiency, ETOH, liver failure, and drug effects

14

causes of normocytic anemia

anemia of chronic disease, sickle cell disease, renal failure, blood loss and hemolysis

15

What are the causes of megolablastic anemias

b12 or folate deficiency

16

What kind of anemia is iron deficiency

microcytic, hypochromic

17

What causes iron deficiency anemia

blood loss, inadequate iron intake, impaired absorption of iron

18

What kind of anemia is pica found

iron deficiency anemia

19

What are the labs in iron deficiency anemia

low h&h
low MCV
love MCHC
low RBC
low serum iron
LOW SERUM FERRITIN
HIGH TIBC
high rdw

20

define Hct

Measures the % of a given volume of whole blood that is occupied by erythrocytes; the amount of plasma to total RBC mass (RBC concentration)

21

What is the mean corpuscular volume

Expression of the average volume and size of individual erythrocytes

22

Normal MCV

80-100

23

What is the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration?

Expression of the average Hgb concentration or the proportion of each RBS occupied by Hbg as a %

24

Normal MCHC

32-36%

25

hyperchromic

>36%

26

causes of microcytic anemia

Low MCV, IRON DEFICIENCY and thalassemia

27

Causes of macrocytic anemia

high MCV: B12 or folate deficiency, ETOH, liver failure, and drug effects

28

causes of normocytic anemia

anemia of chronic disease, sickle cell disease, renal failure, blood loss and hemolysis

29

What are the causes of megolablastic anemias

b12 or folate deficiency

30

What kind of anemia is iron deficiency

microcytic, hypochromic

31

What causes iron deficiency anemia

blood loss, inadequate iron intake, impaired absorption of iron

32

What kind of anemia is pica found

iron deficiency anemia

33

What are the labs in iron deficiency anemia

low h&h
low MCV
love MCHC
low RBC
low serum iron
LOW SERUM FERRITIN
HIGH TIBC
high rdw

34

Directions for iron supplementation for iron deficiency anemia

PO ferrous sulfate 300-325 1-2 hours after meals
NOt taken with antacids because interferes with absorption
taking iron with juice or vitamin C increases absorption
Eat foods high in iron

35

foods high in iron

Raisins, green leafy vegetables, red meats, citrus products, and iron fortified bread and cereals

36

Labs in thalassemia

decreased Hgb
Low MCV
Low MCHC
NORMAL TIBC
NORMAL ferritin
decreased alpha or beta hub chains

37

When is glossitis seen

in folic acid deficiency and pernicious anemia (b12)

38

What s/sx differentiates b12 deficiency and folic acid deficiency

No neurological signs are seen in folic acid deficiencies, neuro deficiencies seen in b12 deficiencies

39

What type of anemia do ETOH people have

folic acid deficiency

40

labs seen in folic acid deficiency

h&H decreased
MCV ELEVATED
MCHC NORMAL
serum folate decreased

41

management of folic acid deficiency

1mg folate daily
foods high in folic acid: bananas, peanut butter, fish, green vegetables, iron fortified foods and cereals

42

What are some of the neuro s/sx of pernicious anemia

Paresthesia
loss of vibratory sense
loss of fine motor control
positive romberg
positive babinski

43

Labs in pernicious anemia

h&h and RBCs decreases
MCV increased (macrocytic)
serum b12 decreased
anti-IF INTRINSIC FACTOR and anti parietal cell antibody test affirm deficiency
schilling test may help to fete mine the cause

44

tx for pernicious anemia

B12 (cyanocobalamin) 100u IM daily x1 week
lifelong maintnance

45

What are causes of anemia of chronic disease

chronic inflammation, infection, renal failure, and malignancy

46

What are the labs for anemia of chronic disease

h&h low
MCV normal
MCHC normal
serum iron and TIBC low
serum ferritin is high

47

What kind of anemia is anemia of chronic disease

normocytic, normochromic

48

What causes pain in sickle cell disease

ischemia and blood viscosity

49

define leukemia

neoplasms arising from hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow

50

What is the most common form of leukemia

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

51

What are the hallmarks of CLL

occurs in both middle age and old age
median survival is 10 years
LYMPHOCYTOSIS IS THE HALLMARK OF THE DISEASE

52

What is the most common cause of acute leukemia

acute neoplastic leukemia/ acute myelogenous leukemia (ANL/AML)

53

What is the long term survival rate of AML

40%

54

What is the remission rate of AML

50-85%

55

What is the hallmark of Acute Lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

pancytopenia with circulating blasts

56

what is the remission rate of ALL in children

90%

57

What is the hallmark of chronic myelogenous (CML)

PHILAdELPHIA CHROMOSOME seen in leukemia cells

58

When is CML most seen and what is the median survival rate?

40 and older
3-4 years

59

What are the labs for leukemias

CBC with subnormal RBCs and neutrophils
Elevated ESR
Peripheral blood smear distinguishes acute and chronic leukemia
BONE MARROW ASPIRATION IS REQUIRED TO CONFIRM THE DIAGNOSIS

60

What is stage 1 lymphoma

disease localized to single lymph node or group

61

What is stage II lymphoma

more than 1 lymph node group involved; confined to one side of the diaphragm

62

What is stage III lymphoma

lymph nodes or the spleen is involved; occurs on both sides of the diaphragm

63

What is stage IV lymphoma

liver or bone marrow involvement

64

Presentation of non-hodgkins lymphoma

LYMPHADENOPATHY
most common neoplasm between ages 20 and 40 years

65

Presentation of hodgkins disease

usually presents with cervical adenopathy and oreads in a predictable fashion along lymph node groups

66

What cells differentiate hodgkins from non-hodgkins lymphoma

characteristic Reed-Sternberg cells are seen in hodgkins disease

67

average age of hodgkins disease

32 yo male

68

What diagnostics are used for lymphoma

CT, X-rays, US, and MRI can locate and stage disease
biopsy and hitso to confirm diagnosis

69

What is the T in TNM classification

Size of direct extent of the primary tumor (a,is,0,1 to 4)

70

What is the N in TNM classification

spread to regional lymph nodes
(0-3)

71

What is the M in TNM

distant metastasis

72

What is immunosenescene

The immune systems diminished function with age which leads to a decline in the response to infection

73

What happens with immunity with aging?

Innate immunity functions (macrophages, natural kills cells, neutrophils) declines
adaptive immunity responses diminishes
Decreased thymic hormone production resulting in decreased number of functioning T-cells
decreased antibody production and response
diminished response to antigen

74

what is included in the management of RA

methotrexate, steroids and gold salt injections

75

joint pain that improves as the day progresses is indicative of

RA