Flashcards in Heme/Onc Random Facts Deck (72)
What is the life span of a thrombocytes.
What are the granules in platelets?
Dense granules-contain ADP and Ca, alpha-granules contain vWF and fibrinogen
Where is 1/3 of the platelet pool stored
In the spleen
What are the granules in neutrophils?
Specific granules contain ALP, collagenase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin. Azurophilic granules (lysosomes) contain proteases, acid phosphatase, myeloperoxidase, and beta-glucuronidase
How are macrophages involved in septic shock?
Lipid A from bacterial LPS binds CD 14 on macrophages to initiate septic shock
What activates macrophages?
What does eosinophilic mean?
What does basophilic mean?
What are the causes of eosinophilia?
Neoplasia, asthma, allergy, chronic adrenal insufficiency, parasites
What die the granules in basophils contain?
Heparin and histamine. Leukotrienes synthesized and released on demand
What can basophilia be a sign of?
Myeloproliferative disease, particularly CML
What's the universal donor and universal recipient of plasma?
AB is the universal plasma donor (because no antibodies in their plasma), O is the universal recipient of plasma (because antibodies have nothing to react with)
How does warfarin work?
It inhibits vitamin K episode reductase, which is needed to activate the vitamin K dependent clotting factors
MOA of antithrombin
Inhibits activated forms of factors 2, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12. Principle targets of antithrombin: thrombin and factor Xa
What does tPA do?
Converts plasminogen to plasmin
MOA of protein C and S
Protein C is converted to activated protein C by thrombin-thrombin insulin complex on endothelial cells, APC is activated by protein S to cleave and inactivate factor Va and VIIIa
MOA of clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticlipidine
Inhibit ADP-induced expression of GpIIb/IIIa
MOA of abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirifiban
Inhibit GpIIb/IIIa directly
What is Bernard Soulier syndrome
A deficiency of GpIb
What is Glazmann thrombasthenia
Deficiency of GpIIb/IIIa
When might you see a failure of agglutination with ristocetun assay?
Von Willebrand disease and Bernard-Soulier syndrome
When might you see acanthocytes ("spur cells")
Liver disease, abetalipoproteinemia
When might you see target cells
HbC disease, Asplenia, liver disease, thalassemia
What are Heinz bodies?
Oxidation do Hb-SH groups to -S--S- causing hemoglobin precipitation with subsequent damage to RBC membrane causing bite cells
What might you see in a reticulocyte in Wright-Giemsa stain
Blue staining, represents the residual ribosomal RNA
Where does iron absorption occur?
In the duodenum and proximal jejunum so bypassing this in a gastrojejunostomy results in iron deficiency anemia
What is associated with koilonychia?
(Spoon nails) iron deficiency anemia
What happens with a four allele deletion in the alpha-globin gene?
Hemoglobin Barts (4 Gamma chains) forms. Is incompatible with life
What is hemoglobin H?
Four beta chains