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Flashcards in Heme/Onc Random Facts Deck (72)
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1

What is the life span of a thrombocytes.

8-10 days

2

What are the granules in platelets?

Dense granules-contain ADP and Ca, alpha-granules contain vWF and fibrinogen

3

Where is 1/3 of the platelet pool stored

In the spleen

4

What are the granules in neutrophils?

Specific granules contain ALP, collagenase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin. Azurophilic granules (lysosomes) contain proteases, acid phosphatase, myeloperoxidase, and beta-glucuronidase

5

How are macrophages involved in septic shock?

Lipid A from bacterial LPS binds CD 14 on macrophages to initiate septic shock

6

What activates macrophages?

Gamma-interferon

7

What does eosinophilic mean?

Pink

8

What does basophilic mean?

Blue/purple

9

What are the causes of eosinophilia?

Neoplasia, asthma, allergy, chronic adrenal insufficiency, parasites

10

What die the granules in basophils contain?

Heparin and histamine. Leukotrienes synthesized and released on demand

11

What can basophilia be a sign of?

Myeloproliferative disease, particularly CML

12

What's the universal donor and universal recipient of plasma?

AB is the universal plasma donor (because no antibodies in their plasma), O is the universal recipient of plasma (because antibodies have nothing to react with)

13

How does warfarin work?

It inhibits vitamin K episode reductase, which is needed to activate the vitamin K dependent clotting factors

14

MOA of antithrombin

Inhibits activated forms of factors 2, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12. Principle targets of antithrombin: thrombin and factor Xa

15

What does tPA do?

Converts plasminogen to plasmin

16

MOA of protein C and S

Protein C is converted to activated protein C by thrombin-thrombin insulin complex on endothelial cells, APC is activated by protein S to cleave and inactivate factor Va and VIIIa

17

MOA of clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticlipidine

Inhibit ADP-induced expression of GpIIb/IIIa

18

MOA of abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirifiban

Inhibit GpIIb/IIIa directly

19

What is Bernard Soulier syndrome

A deficiency of GpIb

20

What is Glazmann thrombasthenia

Deficiency of GpIIb/IIIa

21

When might you see a failure of agglutination with ristocetun assay?

Von Willebrand disease and Bernard-Soulier syndrome

22

When might you see acanthocytes ("spur cells")

Liver disease, abetalipoproteinemia

23

When might you see target cells

HbC disease, Asplenia, liver disease, thalassemia

24

What are Heinz bodies?

Oxidation do Hb-SH groups to -S--S- causing hemoglobin precipitation with subsequent damage to RBC membrane causing bite cells

25

What might you see in a reticulocyte in Wright-Giemsa stain

Blue staining, represents the residual ribosomal RNA

26

Where does iron absorption occur?

In the duodenum and proximal jejunum so bypassing this in a gastrojejunostomy results in iron deficiency anemia

27

What is associated with koilonychia?

(Spoon nails) iron deficiency anemia

28

What happens with a four allele deletion in the alpha-globin gene?

Hemoglobin Barts (4 Gamma chains) forms. Is incompatible with life

29

What is hemoglobin H?

Four beta chains

30

What ethnicities are associated with alpha and beta thalassemia?

Alpha- Asian and African, beta-Mediterranean