Heme/Thromboembolism/Immunopath Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Heme/Thromboembolism/Immunopath > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heme/Thromboembolism/Immunopath Deck (43):
1

Petechiae

-hemorrhage
-1-2mm hemorrhages: skin serosal surfaces, thrombocytopenia

2

Purpura

-hemorrhage
-3mm hemorrhages
-trauma and vasculitis

3

Ecchymoses

-hemorrhage
-1-2 cm bruise
-blood in soft tissues

4

hematoma

-hemorrhage
-larger collection of blood
hemarthrosis and hemothorax etc

5

Virchows Triad

-thrombosis
1. alteration in endothelium
2. alternation in flow
3. alteration in coaguability

6

Cardiogenic Shock

-myocardial pump failure, myocardial infarction

7

Hypovolemic

-loss of blood pr plasma

8

septic

-system microbial infection, vasodilation and peripheral pooling of blood, systemic reaction to bacterial or fungal infection

9

anaphylactic shock

IgE mediated hypersensitivity vasodilation and permeability

10

neurogenic shock

loss of vascular tone

11

septic shock

-vasodilation with relative hypo perfusion also depressed myocardium --> low output
-cytokine cascase --> direct injury to vessels
-endothelial injury--> DIC

12

Hypersentivity Type 1: Immediate reaction

-5-30 min post exposure; subside in 60 mins
-vasodilation, vascular leakage, smooth muscle spasm, glandular secretions

13

Type 1: Late-phase reaction

-2-24 hours later; may last days
-occurs without additional exposure to antigen
-eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils, monocytes, and CD4+T cells
-tissue destruction, mucosal epithelial cell damage

14

systemic anaphylaxis

-vascular shock, widespread edema, and difficulty in breathing
-minutes --> itching, hives, and skin erythema -->contraction of respiratory bronchioles and respiratory distress; laryngeal edema
-vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and laryngeal obstruction

15

Atopy

predisposition to develop localized immediate hypersensitivity reactions
-increase IgE levels
-increased IL-4 levels
-family history in 50%

16

non-atopic allergy

immediate hypersensitivity reaction triggered by temperature extremes and exercise
-do not involve TH2 cells or IgE
-abnormally sensitive mast cells to non-immune stimuli

17

antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)

-cell lysis without phagocytosis
-monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and NK cells

18

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (type II)

-target antigent: red cell membrane proteins
-opsonization and phagocytosis of red cells
-hemolysis and anemia

19

Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (type II)

-target antigen: platelet membrane protein (GpIIIb)
-opsonization and phagocytosis of platelets
-bleeding

20

pemphigus vulgaris (type II)

target antigen: proteins in intercellular junctions of epidermal cells
-antibody-mediated activation of proteases, disruption of intercellular adhesions
-skin vesicles

21

vasculitis caused by ANCA (type II)

target antigen: neutrophil granule proteins, prseumbly released from activated neutrophils
-neutrophil degranulation and inflammation
-vasculitis

22

Goodpasture Syndrome (type II)

-target antigen: noncollagenous protein in basement membrane of kidney and glomeruli and lung alveoli
-complement and Fc receptor-mediated inflammation
-nephritis, lung hemorrhage

23

Acute rheumatic fever (type II)

-antigen target: streptococcal cell wall antigen; antibody cross-reacts with myocradial antigen
-inflammation, macrophage activation
myocarditis arthritis

24

insulin-resistant diabetes (type II)

-antigen target: insulin receptor
-antibody inhibits binding of insulin
-hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis

25

pernicious anemia (type II)

-antigen target: intrinsic factor of gastric parietal cells
-neutralization of IF, decreased absorption of vitamin B12
-abnormal erythropoeisis and anemia

26

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Type III
Antigen: nuclear antigens
CC: nephritis, skin lesions, arthritis, other

27

poststreptococcal golmerulonephritis

TYPE III
Antigen: streptococcal cell wall antigens; may be planted in glomerular basement membrane
CC; nephritis

28

polyarteritis nodosa

Type III
-Antigen: hepatitis B virus antigens in some cases
CC: systemic vasculitis

29

reactive arthritis

Type III
Antigen: bacterial antigens
CC: acute arthritis

30

Serum sickness

Type III
antigen: various proteins, foreign serum protein (horse anti-thymocyte globulin)
CC: arthritis, vasculitis, nephritis

31

Arthus reaction

Type III
antigen: various foreign proteins
CC: cutaneous vasculitis

32

type I diabetes mellitus

Type IV
antigen: pencreatic islet B cells
CC: chronic inflammation in islets, destruction of B cells; diabetes

33

multiple sclerosis

Type IV
antigen: protein in CNS myelin
CC: demyelination in CNS with perivascular inflammation; paralysis, ocular lesions

34

rheumatiod arthritis

Type IV
Antigen: unknown antigen in joint synovium
CC: chronis arthritis with inflammation, destruction of articular cartilage and bone

35

crohn disease

Type IV
Antigen: unknown antigen; role for commensal bacteria
CC: chronic intestinal inflammation obstruction

36

peripheral neuropathy Guillain Barre Syndrom

Type IV
antigen: protein antigens of peripher nerve myelin
CC: neuritis, paralysis

37

contact sensitivity (dermatitis)

Type IV
antigen: various environmental antigens
CC: skin inflammation with blisters

38

ANA for SLE

Antigen: Native DNA - anti-double stranded DNA
Antigen: core proteins of small nuclear RNP particles (smith antigen - anti-smith

39

ANA for drug induced LE

histones - antihistone

40

ANA for Limited Scleroderma CREST

1. Antigen: RNP (U1RNP) - Antibody: nuclear RNP
2. Antigen: Centromeric proteins Antibody: anticentromere

41

ANA for Sjorgen Syndrome

Antigen: RNP Antibody: SS-A (Ro) SS-B (La)

42

ANA for Systemic Sclerosis Diffuse and

1. Antigen: RNP (U1RNP) - Antibody: nuclear RNP
2. Antigen: DNA topoisomerase I - Antibody: Scl-70

43

ANA for Inflammatory Myopathies

Antigen: Histidyl-tRNA synthetase Antibody: Jo-1