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Flashcards in Hemorrhage And Shock Deck (58)
0

What are four signs and symptoms of hypovolemic shock?

Rapid, weak pulse
Hypotension
AMS
Cool, clammy skin

1

How many millimeters of blood does a typical adult have?

Approximately 70 mL/kg

2

At what percent will a body not tolerate an acute loss of blood?

Greater than 20%

3

How are vitals affected if a patient loses more than 1 liter of blood (2 pints)?

Increased heart rate
Increase repertory rate
Decrease in blood pressure

4

How much total blood volume does a 1 year old child have?

About 800 mL

5

What is hypovolemic shock?

Low blood volume results in inadequate perfusion

6

What color is arterial bleeding?

Bright red

7

What color is venous bleeding?

Dark red

8

What color is capillary bleeding?

Dark red

9

What is hemostasis?

Formation of a clot to plug openings in injured blood vessels and stop blood flow

10

What is coffee ground emesis a sign of?

Upper GI bleeding

11

What is melena?

Passage of dark, tarry stools

12

What is melena a sign of?

Upper GI bleeding

13

What is hematochezia?

Passage of stools containing bright red blood

14

What is hematochezia a sign of?

Bleeding close to the external opening of the colon

15

What tends to cause hematochezia?

Hemorrhoids in the lower colon

16

What is hematuria?

Blood in the urine

17

What is hematuria a sign of?

Serious renal injury or illness

18

What is a pulse point?

Spot where a blood vessel lies near a bone

19

What are hemostats?

Forceps used to clamp ends of vessels

20

What is the primary use of pneumatic antishock garment?

Stabilization of an unstable pelvis, especially when the patient is exhibiting signs of hypoperfusion

21

What is another name for PASG.

MAST
Military antishock trousers

22

What is the only true contraindication of pneumatic antishock garments (PASG)/military antishock trousers (MAST)?

Pulmonary edema

23

How do you treat suspected skull fracture bleeding?

Loosely cover the bleeding site with a sterile gauze pad

Don't apply excessive pressure due to blood collecting in the head

24

What are the three parts of the cardiovascular system?

Pump (heart)
Container (vessels)
Fluid (blood)

25

In the cardiovascular system, what is the pump?

The heart

26

In the cardiovascular system, what is the container?

Vessels

27

In the cardiovascular system, what is the fluid?

Blood

28

What is the formula for cardiac output?

CO= HR ✖️ SV (stroke volume)

29

What is the formula for blood pressure?

BP= CO ✖️ SVR (systemic vascular resistance)

30

Where are three places that baroreceptors are located?

Aortic arch
Carotid sinuses
(As well as most of the large arteries of the neck and thorax)

31

What do baroreceptors monitor?

If they sense a decrease blood flow, then it activates the vasomotor center which begins constriction of the vessels which increases blood pressure

Monitors blood pressure

32

What does the vasomotor center do?

Oversees changes in the diameter of blood vessels

33

At what systolic BP does does the vasomotor center stimulate?

Between a systolic of 60-80 mmHg

34

Where are chemoreceptors located?

Carotid and aortic bodies

35

How are chemoreceptors simulated?

By decreases in PaO2 and increases in PaCO2

36

What do chemoreceptors regulate?

Respirations

37

What are three alpha 1 responses of the adrenal medulla?

Release of epinephrine for:
Vasoconstriction
Increased peripheral vascular resistance
Increased after load from the arteriolar constriction

38

What two catecholamines are secreted by the adrenal medulla?

Norepinephrine (alpha)
Epinephrine (beta)

39

What is chronotropic?

Influences heart rate

40

What is inotropic?

Influencing force of contractions

41

What is dromotropic?

Influencing heart conductivity

42

What is chronotropic?

Influences heart rate

43

What is inotropic?

Influencing force of contractions

44

What is dromotropic?

Influencing heart conductivity

45

How does epinephrine effect alpha 2?

Regulates release of alpha 1

46

What three ways does epinephrine effect beta 1?

Increased heart rate
Increased heart contractility
Increase heart conductivity

47

What two ways does epinephrine effect beta 2?

Bronchodilation
Gastrointestinal smooth muscle dilation

48

What are spincters under control of?

Autonomic nervous system

49

What are the three stages of shock?

Compensated
Decompensated
Irreversible

50

What is pulse pressure?

Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

51

What two things does an orthostatic tilt test determine?

Dehydration
Hypovolemia

52

What are the two causes for obstructive shock?

Cardiac tamponade
Tension pneumothorax

53

What are three causes of distributive shock?

Anaphylaxis
Sepsis
Spinal shock

54

What pulse do you lose as you have decompensated shock?

Radial pulse

55

What are indications for PASG/MAST

Pelvic fracture with systolic <50

56

PASG/MAST does more harm than good during what five scenarios?

Pregnancy
Penetrating chest/abdominal injuries
Groin injuries
Major head injuries
Transport time <30 mins

57

What does the build up of lactic acid and carbon dioxide cause in regards to post capillary sphincters?

Vasodilation