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Flashcards in Hemostasis Deck (15):
1

What are the two types if bleeding?

Arterial - gross bleeding from transected or penetrated vessel
Venous - diffuse oozing from denuded or cut surfaces

2

Complete hemostasis is essential to _____________.

Wound management

Bleeding needs to stop

3

What is a hematoma?

Collection of extravasated blood in body cavity, space, or tissue caused by uncontrolled bleeding or oozing.

4

How is hemostasis achieved?

Chemical
Mechanical
Thermal

5

What are some chemical methods of hemostasis?

Absorbable gel foam or collagen
Oxytocin
Epinephrine
Silver nitrate
Phenol and alcohol
Sclerotherapy
Thrombin

6

What are some methods of external mechanical hemostasis?

Teds
Sequential compression devices
Mast trousers
Tourniquet
Pressure dressings
Packing

7

What are some methods of internal mechanical hemostasis?

Hemostasis clamps
Lighting clips
Ligature
Packs
Pledgets (mini squares)
Bone wax
Digital compression
Suction
Drains

8

What are some methods of cold thermal hemostasis?

Cryosurgery - freeze target areas with e.g Liquid nitrogen. Nose cancer of cervix, eyes.

Hypothermia
- local: ice pack to cool area down
- systemic: cool whole person down

9

What are some methods of hot thermal hemostasis?

Electro cautery
Electrosurgery
Fulguration
Ultrasonic scalpel (harmonic)
Laser
Photocoagulation
Plasma scalpel

10

What is electrocautery?

Small loop heated by a steady, direct electric current to red heat which will coagulate and destroy tissue on contact.

11

What is electrosurgery?

Bovine machine
High frequency electric current from electrosurgical unit used to cut or coagulate tissue

Pt must be grounded and safety precautions taken.

12

What is an ultrasonic scalpel?

Aka the harmonic scalpel
Titanium blade moved by rapid ultrasonic motion that cuts and coagulates tissue simultaneously.

13

When might the laser be used?

For stones or genital warts. Can cut, coagulate, and or vaporize tissue

14

When is photo coagulation used?

During ophthalmology

15

What are complications of hemorrhage?

Anemia
Hypovolemia
Hypotension
Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy
Tachy
Brady
Unconsciousness