Flashcards in henry viii Deck (43):
why did the monarch rely on the Church?
-to give his position legitimacy by ABC anointing him as gods rep on earth (at coronation at West Minster)
-to reinforce law + order through beliefs + teachings
- leading church figures played a key role in advising the king as members of PC
how did Churchmen play key role in politics?
abbots and bishops sat in HoL with nobility (deciding legislation and advised the king)
how many parishes were there in England?
why did h depend of the church as a means of social control?
-church was the physical centre and each parishioner knew their priest, but did not know their king
- they also eased social tensions due to emph on giving to the poor and providing them with support
how much did rome receive from England?
£4500 per year in taxation (1520s) and religious fees
how much did h receive from church taxes?
£12,500 per year from Church taxes
what was Peter's Pence?
from 11th century every house in England paid tax of one penny to Rome
what was a tithe?
the most signif tax paid, it was a tenth of a persons income or what they produced ( could include crops ect + was stored in a tithe barn to support the priest and help the poor, but was often sold) paid annually to Church. if parishoners refused or could not pay they would be taken to church court
why did monasteries have great economic and political power?
monks were sworn to poverty, but had land themselves which became the monasteries and nobility and gentry gave gifts of land , silver and gold
what were the punishments of the church courts?
fined- for non-attendance to church or breaking 10 c
imprisonment or fines for slander and adultery which were dealt with there
execution was only used for heretics
why did the CC provide wills?
they became more popular in the 16th century because people had more possessions. people left signif amounts to the c and wills were dictated to priests before a person died which is often why they left lots to the church
how did parish churches allow social help? (3)
- they accommodate people and animals in sever weather
-no pews to allow open space so it could be used to hold markets and social activities
- important village meetings could be held their
how did the church allow wealthy ppl to impress?
- c accepted gifts of G+S, vestements, altar clothes and service books
- all gifts were given in the name of the donor and recorded as an indication of their generosity
- large gifts meant donors name recorded in stone
when h became king in 1509 how many monasteries were there in England?
what was the social importance of monasteries?
- they fought against disease as monks had medical knowledge- almost provided health care
-monks provided education to the sons of nobility
- provided arable land to workers and labourers so monasteries were major producers of wool and iron
how did the monasteries have great economic importance to England?
- large land holdings from sons of gentry who became monks
- land was also given to fund monks praying for the dead
why did the wealthy not need lay religious guilds?
they could finance the building of personal chantry chapels where a priest would say masses for individuals or in family perpetuity, but his was not the case for the majority
what is the role of the lay religious guilds? (6)
- provided a chapel and priest to ensure prayers were said for the dead and provided funeral with requiem mass
- based on crafts
- played active role in religious festivals ( the importance of the guild determined their place in corpus Christi procession)
-provided benefits to those struggling financially
- imposed strict moral code on members
- attendance to guilds masses and funerals was compulsory
what is purgatory?
if you commit any sin you would spend time in purgatory where they would be judged before going to heaven
what are indulgences?
reduced time in purgatory and involved pilgrimages or praying to saints or touching relics of saints
what reduces time in purgatory?
mass for the souls of the dead, participation in church rituals, receiving sacraments, doing good works ( praying for the dead and giving gifts to the church)
give two examples of pilgrimages
- saint Thomas becket at Cambridge- the tomb of saint
- virgin Mary at Walsingham in Norfolk - shrine where she had visited
what was the role of the priest?
- reassure people they would be forgiven by god if they came to church
- listen to confessions and could forgive their sins
- interpret WoG as it was in Latin
why was the printing press important?
- growth in literacy in nobles, gentry and merchants
- increased no. of grammar schools
- increased availability of books
- as people could read and write, more went to uni to become legal professionals or merchants
what is the printing press?
used movable type and was developed in gr in 1450
a single press could produce 3600 pages a day
1475 first book published in English
what are the Canterbury tales?
published by the printing press and were written about stories told by a group of pilgrims travelling from London to shrine of Thomas becket
what does the term lollardy refer to?
term of abuse givin to followers of john Wycliffe suggesting they were talking rubbish as their tongues were too big for their mouths
suggest some beliefs of lollards?
- Christianity based on bible not priest interpretations
-everyone own bible in English
- rejected need for priests
- did not believe in transub
what is predestination?
good works make not difference as your fate is already decided
who did Lutherans follow?
in 1520 an oxford bookseller recorded the sale of how many Lutheran books?
name those influenced by Lutheranism?
William Tyndale, simon fish , cranmer, cromwell
suggest some beliefs of lurtherans?
-questioned role of priest
- royal supremacy- king head of the church
suggest some beliefs of humanists
-principle of catholic faith - free will
- sought to purify rel. ideas from errors in translation
- did not challenge cath doctrine, but practices
name three key humanists in h reign
Erasmus, more , colet
name the 4 criticism of the ch
absenteeism, pluralism, simony and nepotism
what is simony?
the sale of ecclesiastical title. occurred most frequently in priest when they sold their position to the person who paid the most meaning often clergy were under education and incapable
what is nepotism?
the promotion of members of ones family to lucrative positions rather than on ability
give and example of nepotism
the son of cardinal wolsey, Thomas Wynter was made Provost of Beverly minister and Dean of Wells (both were high earning postitions)
what is absenteeism?
when priest would hold the right to more than one parish (pluralism) and so were often absent from at least one, but took money from both and employed a partially educated cleric to take the service
what are mortuary fees?
payment made by the relative of person being buried to priest. imposed by the ch
what is the benefit of the clergy?
if a priest was suspected of a crime they would call this so they could be tried in cc rather than kings and escape hanging