Herbal medications Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Pharmacology > Herbal medications > Flashcards

Flashcards in Herbal medications Deck (36):
1

what are the problems with evidence of effectiveness for dietary supplements?

1. lack of large double blind RCTs
2. doses and formulations vary between studies

2

what is the caveat to regulatory companies like USP?

do not ensure safety or effectiveness

3

what is the role of regulatory companies like USP?

ensure that manufacturing and quality have been tested

4

what is the main therapeutic use for echinacea?

decrease duration and intensity of common cold

5

what are the results of in vitro and animal model studies of echinacea?

1. immune modulating (increase cytokine production)
2. antiinflammatory (inhibits COX)
3. increase number of immunological blood cells

6

what are the adverse effects of echinacea?

rash
severe thrombocytopenia
inhibitor of cyp

7

echinacea is contraindicated in what population?

immunodepressed

8

what are the therapeutic uses for gingko biloba?

treatment / prevention of alzheimers
peripheral vascular disease

9

what are the effects of gingko biloba on the CNS (in animal studies)?

increase in 5-HT receptor density

10

what are the adverse effects of gingko?

antiplatelet
bleeding
diarrhea
anxiety

11

most clinical studies have used what formulation of garlic?

dried and powdered

12

what are the primary uses for garlic?

atherosclerosis
high cholesterol
HTN

13

what are the mechanisms by which garlic can attenuate elevated BP?

1. inhibit ACE
2. increase NO
3. increase H2S production

all enhance vasodilation

14

what is the main adverse effect of garlic?

bleeding

15

what is the primary intended use for ginseng?

boost immune system, stamina, mental and physical performance

16

what are the adverse effects of ginseng?

CNS stimulation
irritability
manic behavior

17

ginseng has drug interactions with what other drugs?

autoimmune disorders
anticoagulants
antiplatelets
antipsychotics

18

what is the primary intended use of milkthistle?

liver disease

19

what are some of the proposed MOAs of milkthistle?

reducing collagen accumulation (mouse livers)
prevention of HCV into liver cells (in vitro)

20

what is the primary use of st johns wort?

antidepressant

21

what is the proposed MOA of st johns wort?

inhibit reuptake of serotonin, DA, NE (in vitro)

22

what is the main adverse effect of st johns wort? why?

decreased serum concentrations of other drugs

inducer of cyp enzymes

23

what is the primary intended use of saw palmetto?

BPH

24

what is the primary intended use of glucosamine and chondroitin?

osteoarthritis

25

what are the main adverse effects of glucosamine and chondroitin?

enhancement of anticoagulant effects of warfarin
increase fasting blood glucose

26

what is the main adverse effect of melatonin?

decrease sperm quality in men
reduce luteinizing hormone in women

27

butterbur is used as an herbal supplement for what condition?

migraine

28

which herbal supplements are used to treat migraines?

butterbur
feverfew
coenzyme Q

29

what are the primary uses for coQ10?

reduce statin induced myopathy
HTN
ischemic heart disease
neurodegenerative disorders
migraine

30

what is the main contraindication for coQ10 use?

warfarin

31

what are the primary intended uses for fish oil?

hypertriglyceridemia
CV disease

32

which drug has seizures as an adverse effect?

gingko

33

which drugs hae bleeding as an adverse effect?

gingko
garlic
glucosamine / chondroitin

34

which drug has reproductive dysfunction as an adverse effect?

melatonin

35

which drugs have immune modulation as an adverse effect?

echinacea
gingseng

36

which drug has drug metabolism as an adverse effect?

st johns wort

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