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Flashcards in Hernias Deck (31):
1

What is the definition of a Hernia?

An abnormal protrusion of a viscus outwith
its normal body cavity

2

What are the most common hernias?

Inguinal
Umbilical
Incisional
Femoral

3

What are the natural hernias?

Inguinal
Femoral
Umbilicus
Oesophageal
Hitasus
Obturator

4

What are weak area hernias?

Hernias that are caused by stretching or surgical incisions

5

What are the weak area hernias?

Incisional
Parastomal
Epigastric
Paraumbilical

6

What predisposes you to have a hernia?

Anything that increases the intra-abdominal pressure
e.g. Prostatism
Constipation

7

How can a Hernia be classified?

It can be classified as a reducible (This is were the hernia goes back in) or Irreducible hernia. (This is were the bowel is not really affect and does not go back in)

8

What are the types of Irreducible hernias?

Obstructred
Incarcerated
Strangulated

9

What is strangulation of a hernia?

compromise of the blood supply of the contents
and its development increase morbidity and mortality. Venous obstruction
The low pressure venous system is occluded first
and then the arterial supply becomes occluded, with
the development of gangrene

10

What causes a strangulated bowel?

A band adhesion.

11

What is an incarcerated hernia?

An incarcerated hernia is a type of hernia characterized by the fact that the herniated tissue becomes trapped in the hernial sack.

12

What type of hernia can cause a strangulated hernia?

An obstructed hernia

13

What is a paraumbilical hernia?

A hernia that is just next to the umbilical tube.
This is only in adults, children get true umbilical hernias

14

If the hernia is bigger than two contretemps how do you treat?

With a Mesh

15

What causes a epigastric hernia?

Decompensation/congenital weakness of the linea alba - which is a fibrous structure that runs down the midline of the abdomen.

16

What is a true umbilical hernia?

A hernia that runs through the umbilical tube.
Occurs in Kids

17

In paediatric inguinal hernia, what is the major risk?

Obstruction and strangulation as the space is not large.

18

How does a inguinal hernia occur in children?

As the testes descend the processes vaginalis is part of the peritoneum that comes down with the testes This should obliterate (join together) and from the tunica vaginalis around the testes. If it doesn't obliterate you can form scrotal hernias or inguinal hernias.

19

What causes an inguinal hernia in kids?

A patent processus vaginalis

20

What causes a femoral hernia?

When a component comes through a defective femoral canal.
High risk of obstruction
e.g. part of the bowel

21

What are the boundaries of the femoral canal?

Anterior – Inguinal Ligament
Medial – Lacunar Ligament
Lateral – Femoral Vein
Posterior – Pectinate Ligam

22

What patients does a femoral hernia generally occur in?

An elderly female patient

23

Where is an inguinal hernia?

Just above the pubic tubercle

24

What is a hydrocele?

Accumulation of serous fluid in a cavity, such as a hernia

25

What are the causes of scrotal swelling?

Inguino-scrotal hernia
Hydrocoele
Epididymal cyst
Testicular swelling

26

What are the different types of the inguinal hernia?

Direct - comes directly up the inguinal canal
Indirect - come through the testicular vesicles through the deep ring.

27

What are the boundaries of the inguinal canal?

There is the deep ring and the superficial ring.
Deep ring – mid-inguinal point
Superficial ring – above and med to pubic tub
Anterior – External oblique aponeurosis
Floor – Inguinal and Lacunar ligament
Roof – Conjoint tendon coming over
Posterior – Transversalis fascia and conjoint tendon (med)

28

What complications are associated with Inguinal Hernias?

Haematoma
Acute urinary retention
Wound infection
Chronic Neurogenic pain
Hernia recurrence
Tescticular pain

29

What are the surgical interventions for inguinal hernia?

Suture the hernia
Open mesh
Laparoscopic repair

30

What is a herniotomy?

Excision of the peritoneal sac.
Used in children

31

What is a Herniorraphy?

Repair in the defect of the wall