Flashcards in Hindbrain, Midbrain And Forebrain Deck (53):
What are the three parts of the brain?
The hindbrain, the midbrain, the forebrain.
These structures interact and work together to enable our body to behave and function in accordance with our thoughts and feelings.
What is the hindbrain?
It's the lower brai which mainly supports bodily functions and it's linked between the spinal cord and the brain. It's important for movement and balance. It includes the brain stem, medulla, pons, cerebellum and part of the reticular formation.
First major component of the hindbrain. It's a continuation of the spinal cord and has an important role in controlling breathing, heartbeat and digestion.
Sits above the medulla and receives info sent from the visual areas to control eye and body actions. it controls movement, breathing, sleeping, dreams and waking.
A walnut-shaped area that receives info from the pons. It's roles is to coordinate the sequence of body movement. Controls perception and cognition, balance and fine muscle control.
It's par of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. Its role is to regulate reflex survival responses.
What is the midbrain?
Sits above the hindbrain and below forebrain. It's responsible for the regulation of sleep, motor movement and arousal. It includes part of the reticular formation.
What is the reticular formation?
A network of neurons that's part of both the midbrain and hindbrain, as well as connecting the hindbrain and forebrain.
The reticular formation is important in controlling arousal and in the 'sleeping and waking' cycle.
What is the forebrain?
The upper level structures of the brain, which includes a number of important brain structures including the cerebrum, the hypothalamus and the thalamus.
Is the biggest and most recognisable par of the forebrain. It's covered by a thin layer known as the cerebral cortex, and divided into the left and right cerebral hemispheres. These are separated by the longitudinal fissure-a deep groove that runs from the front to the rear of the cortex.
What joins the two hemispheres?
The corpus callosum, connects the left and right hemispheres of cerebral cortex. The corpus callosum consists of a set of neural fibres that bridge the gap between the two. Each hemisphere has a central fissure that runs from the top of each hemisphere and down the sides, spreading the front (anterior) of the cerebral cortex from the rear (posterior)
A small structure that has a very important role in the control of basic survival actions: sleep, regulation of body temperature, expression of emotions and the four f's - feeding, fighting, fleeing and fornication
What is the cerebral cortex?
The outer layer of brain- higher mental processes and complex behaviours
Located beneath the cerebral cortex, deep within the cerebral hemispheres. It's divided into two egg-shaped parts that sit side by side, with one part located in each hemisphere.
The thalamus is the communication centre of the brain and it receives info from the ears, eyes, skin and other sensory organs. It's important role is to regulate the overall activity in the cortex.
What is the thalamus two important roles?
- enables an organism to process sensory stimuli in the environment.
- to determine which of the incoming sensory information is the most important for us to pay attention to.
The Spinal cord:
A bundle of nerve fibres connecting the brain with the peripheral nervous system. It's role is to relay info between the brain and body; some simple reflexes.
What is the role of the cerebral cortex?
It's responsible for receiving information from the environment, for controlling our responses and for higher order thinking processes including problem solving and planning. It's important in memory, language and regulation of emotions.
What does the cerebral cortex allow us to do?
Allows us to undertake a range of tasks and to detect differences between pieces of info, to understand the meaning of this info and to think in abstract and symbolic was enabling creativity in art, writing, debating and use of metaphor.
What is the structure of the cerebral cortex?
The Cortex is very thin (3mm) and contains billions of neurons. It's convolutions (folds, grooves and bulges) make the surface area of the cortex large enough to contain enormous amounts of neurons and blood vessels that can supply energy.
What is gyri?
The bulges found on the cerebral cortex, (singular gurus)
What is sulci?
The valleys on the cerebral cortex (singular, sulcus)
The cortex of each cerebral hemisphere comprises of four distinctive regions known as lobes. Each named after the plate of skull protecting it, these include:
- the frontal lobe
- the parietal lobe
- the occipital lobe
- the temporal lobe
ALL MAKE 8 LOBES IN TOTAL
How much space does the primary areas take up?
25% of total cortex
What happens when senses Freire info from the environment?
The info is sent to the thalamus, which then relays it to the primary cortex of the relevant lobe. The primary cortex begins processing and interpreting incoming sensory information.
What is the primary motor cortex?
It's located at the rear of each frontal lobe. It's responsible for movement of the skeletal muscles of the body. (Controls our movement)
What is the primary auditory cortex?
Located in the upper part of the temporal lobes. Receives sounds from the ears.
What's the samotosensory cortex?
It's located at the front of each parietal lobe. Processes sensations such as touch, pressure, temperature and pain from the body
What is the primary visual cortex?
Located in the occipital lobes. Processes info from the eyes.
What's the frontal lobe?
The largest lobe, which initiates movement of the body; controls language, planning, judgement, problem solving, aspects of personality and regulation of emotions.
What is the association area (Broca's area) of the frontal lobe responsible for?
Responsible for the production of speech. It's the part of the frontal lobe that responsible for cognitive processes such as attention, planning, and problem solving, as well as aspects of personality.
What happens if someone has a damaged frontal lobe?
They may not be able to learn form experiences, and also are likely to make mistakes in planning because they lack foresight.
Where is the primary motor cortex situated?
At the rear of each frontal lobe, next to the central fissure. It's responsible for the movement of the skeletal muscles of the body. The left primary motor cortex is responsible for the movement of the right-hand side of the body and vice versa.
What is contralateral organisation?
The left primary motor cortex is responsible for the movement of the right-hand side of the body and vice versa
What is the amount of the primary motor cortex that's devoted to the different parts of the body in probation to?
the amount of the cortex is devoted to the different parts of the body which are in proportion to the number of neurons required to move different anatomical parts. The lips and hands require more motor neurons to move the many small muscles for fine motor activity, whereas other parts of the body require fewer neurons and therefore have less space on the primary motor cortex.
What is the parietal lobe?
It's taken up by the primary somatosensory cortex. It's situated at the front of each parietal lobe, just behind the central fissure and receives sensations such as touch, pressure and temperature and pain from the body.
If the primary somatosensory cortex is damaged what occurs?
If the right parietal lobe PSC is damaged, a person will be unable to process sensation from parts of the body on the left side and the relevant body part will be numb. Vice versa.
What is the amount of the primary samotosensory cortex devoted to the different parts of the body in probation to?
To the number of neurons in different autonomic all parts. The lips and hand have many more sensory neurons, while other parts of the body have less sensitive, and therefore occupy less space on the primary somatosensory cortex.
What is the temporal lobe?
The temporal lobe processes auditory info. The primary auditory cortex, is in the upper part of the temporal lobe. The temporal lobe performs complex auditory analysis that's necessary for understanding human speech or listening to music. Parts of the lobe specialise in sensitivity to particular types of sounds.
What is likely to occur to someone with damage to thier primary auditory cortex?
Likely to experience forms of deafness
What is the occipital lobe?
Is entirely concerned with the vision. Info from the left side of the retina processes in the left occipital lobe and info from the right side of the retina is processed in the right occipital lobe.
What occurs to someone with damage to their primary visual cortex in thier occipital lobe?
Would be unable to process any visual stimuli that their eyes see. Seem like their blind, though there just a gap in their visual field.
What does the association areas of the cortex make up?
The raining 75% of the Cortex.
What are association areas involved with?
Th integration of the info between the motor and sensory areas and higher Oder mental processes. this includes complex cognitive processing such as decision making, thinking, planning, initiating movement, analysis, synthesis and language.
Difference between primary cortices and association areas?
Primary areas are quite specific in their functions and involve integration of info from several senses and memories. While compared to neurons in the association areas, which specialise in analysing and interpreting that particular sensory info.
What are the association areas of the frontal lobe?
- language: Broca's area; it coordinates the movement of lips, tongue and vocal cords
- emotional regulation: emotional response caused by the limbic system
- prefrontal cortex: makes plans and predicts outcomes, helps to regulate emotion and behaviour by anticipating the consequences of actions
- orbits frontal cortex: involves decision making and though to impact behaviour patterns
What are the association areas of the parietal lobe?
The a ritual lobe enables a person to perceive their own body, and it perceive where things are located in their immediate environment. Right parietal lobe enables a person to perceive 3D objects and designs, while the left parietal lobe has a role in reading, writing and performing mental arithmetic.
Association areas of the temporal lobe:
Contains Wernicke's area, which is responsible for storing receptor codes that interpret the meaning of language.
Association areas of the occipital lobe:
If damage occurs to this area, they are unlikely to be able to recognise things by sight
What is hemispheric specialisation?
control of distinct neurological functions by the right and left hemispheres of the brain
Some neural activities only take place in one particular hemisphere.
Eg. Language, left hemisphere
How do the two hemispheres communicate?
By the connecting corpus callosum
What is the lateralisation of the cognitive functions for the left hemisphere?
- Right hand touch