Hip Dysplasia (Pead) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hip Dysplasia (Pead) Deck (22):
1

How can simple heritabile sex linked disease be managed?

Cull the carriers

2

How does polygenic disease differ from simple sex linked disease with carriers etc.?

- can only be expressed as a risk or liability
- range from normal, subclinical disease and clinically affeced

3

How are risks of polygenic disease transmissioin minimised?

- detect carrier aniamls (by radiogaphic signs etc.) in CLINICALLY NORMAL DOGS
- detects the 1* disease (ED, HD)
- detects the 2* OA
- has no relevence to clinical problemin that individual (ETHICS)

4

What is the best way of minimising breeding affected dogs?

- beed from individuals not clinically affects and with no radiographic signs as MOST likely to be furthest away related from affected animals (still doesnt r/o disease)

5

What aspects of the pathogenesis of hip/elbow dysplasia can be seen to help with timeline?

> ligament hypertrophy
- slack ligaments
> subluxation (partial luxation/dislocation, which is usually traumatic)
- ball and oscket not together
- destruction of cartilage
- change of shape of joint surface
> 2* OA
- bony and fibrous
> pain on hip extension early on

6

What does the funny gait seen with hip dysplasia due to?

- dog trying to prevent subluxation by keep femurs underneath the pelvis

7

What 2 main ligaments are associated with the hip?

- capsular ligament
- ligament of the head of the femur

8

Is subluxation painful

not always

9

Where should the head of the femur sit?

Acetabulum of pelvis

10

Outline physical changes associated with hip dysplaisa

- microfx of subchondral bone of acetabulum
- flattening of joint and femoral head
- becomes "cup and saucer" rather than ball and socket
> new bone formation (most common/obvious radiographic sign)

11

What is tx usually based on?

Clinical exam NOT radiographic changes
- but rads usually useful for prognosis, to see degree of subluxation and bony changes

12

What tes can be used to measure subluxation?

> Alterlany test
- push down on knees, abduct legs to measure angle of reduction
- bigger angle of reduction, slacker the joint capsule
- push back = angle of subluxation
- depending how close angle of subluxation to angle of reductin = measure of shallowness of acetabulum

13

OUtline signs and pathophysiology @0-6mo, 6-16mo, and 16mo+ of hip dysplasia

> 0-6
- subluxation
- abnormal gait
> 6-16mo
- subluxation
- abnormal gait
- sublux
- damage and inflam
- pain
- lameness
> 16mo+
- abnormal joint
- 2* OE
- pain
- lameness
- *muscular/fibrous stablisation*
-> pain free but restricted range

14

Why does 9-16months rpesent a danger zone for joint disease?

- skeletally mature @9mo
- NOT muscularly mature until 16mo
- Joints not stabilised so vulnerable to damage

15

What problems generally cause the issues afer 16mo?

- mostly OA
- all muscular stabilisation likely complete at this stage

16

What are the main probelms assocaited with hip dysplasia in a geriatric og?

ALL OA!!!!

17

Tx of hip dysplasia? What does this depend on?

> 0-6mo
- conservative
- diet/excercise
> 6-16mo
- conservative diet/excercise
- drugs
- surgical
- anat. correction (if over >15-20kg)
- ex. arthroplasty
> 16mo+
- conervative
- surgical
- hip replacement (>15-20kg)
- ex. arthroplasty

18

When is surgical correction indicated?


- only after conservative tx has failed!!!!

19

Is hip d ysplasia induced by excercise?

NO no evidence
- care breeder advice

20

What is the function fo the screeening sccheme?

- detectino of carrier animals by radiographicsigns
- detects 1* disease (HD/ED)
- detects 2* OA
- no relevance to clinical problem
> DO NOT START TX EVEN IF RADIOGRAPHIC CHANGES SEEN

21

What information is needed for hip dysplasia screening rads?

- KC number
- date
- LR markers
- extended hip position

22

Cause of hip adn lebow dysplasia?

> genetic
- high heritability of predisposition
- diet and excercise have a role
> heritability factor = proproion of dz PROVEN d/t genetics (actual % may be higher)
- ED: 50-70%, HD: 20-30%