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Anatomy: Lower Limb > Hip Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hip Joint Deck (15):

What type of joint is the hip?

Ball in socket synovial joint


Which bones form the hip joint?

Pelvic acetabulum and head of femur


What is the hip designed for?

Weight-bearing and stability (rather than range of movement)


How is the acetabulum deepened?

Deepened by the acetabular labrum, which is a fibrocartilage collar


What are the femoral head and acetabulum covered in?

Articular cartilage


Where is the ligament of the head of the femur? Which blood vessel is closely related to this ligament?

. Intracapsular ligament that attaches acetabular fossa to fovea of femur
. Encloses obturator artery, which provides minor blood supply to hip joint


Name the three extracapsular hip ligaments

Iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral


Where is the iliofemoral ligament? What does it do?

. Originates from anterior inferior iliac spine and bifurcates to attach to intertrochanteric line of femur
. Prevents hyperextension


Where is the pubofemoral ligament? What does it do?

. Spans between superior pubic rami and intertrochanteric line of femur
. Prevents over-abduction and extension


Where is the ischiofemoral ligament? What does it do?

Spans between ischium and greater trochanter of femur
. Prevents hyperextension


What is the main arterial supply of the hip joint?

Medial and lateral circumflex arteries (branches of deep femoral artery), mainly the medial circumflex


What can damage to the medial circumflex artery result in?

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head


What is the innervation of the hip joint?

Sciatic, femoral, obturator nerves (same nerves innervate the knee)


Why is pain from the hip often referred to the knee and vice versa?

Because both these joints are innervated by the sciatic, femoral, and obturator nerves


How can the range of flexion at the hip be increased?

Flex the knee to relax the hamstrings, then the hip can flex further