Flashcards in HIS 101 Final Deck (76)
What was the renaissance?
A cultural rebirth
When id the renaissance take place?
1300 to 1600
Where did the renaissance begin?
What were the characteristics or features of the Italian Renaissance?
Greco roman heritage, Theocentric vs homocentric views, literacy movement-humanism, philosophy - plato, arts - classical style, concepts of a gentleman, individualism, and fame
How was man viewed during the renaissance?
Important as an idividual, encouraged to be a master in multiple trades
What was the Italian Political climate like during the renaissance?
Weak and disunited
What was humanism during the renaissance
Classicm, human potential, moral inspiration/guidance
Who were some famous Italian Humanists?
Petrarch, boccaccio, and lorenzo valla
Who was the most popular ancient philosopher during the Renaissance? Why?
Plato; his themes of human potential and dignity and he talked of idealized love and beauty
What was the importance of the gentleman during the renaissance?
He was the new knight
How could one be trained to be a gentleman
Reading certain books and going to school
What were the features of a gentleman?
Classics, the arts, manners, military prowess, art of conversation, nonchalance style
What were the major features of Italian renaissance architecture?
Beautification and city planning
What were the major features of renaissance art?
individualism and emotion
What style did the renaissance architects employ
What was the greatest architectural achievement of the Italian Renaissance?
St. Peters basilica
What were trends in renaissance music?
Religious and secular themes, the violin, harpsichord and trombone
Who was the greatest musician of the renaissance?
How did the renaissance spread across the Alps in the 15th and 16th centuries?
Northern scholars studied in italy, new universities in the north, northern invasion of italy, printing press
How does the Northern Renaissance compare with the Italian renaissance
Less brilliant, shorter, more conservative, better translations
What was christian humanism?
interest in church reforms, education and better translations
who was the "Prince of Humanists"?
What were some of the major developments and personalities of the Northern Renaissance in France?
Architecture and literature; Rabelais and Montaigne
What were some of the major developments and personalities of the Northern Renaissance in England?
Poetry, architecture, music, drama; Tudor, Shakespeare, Thomas more
What were some of the major developments and personalities of the Northern Renaissance in Spain?
Poetry, Archictecture, drama, music, novel; escorial, Lope de Vaga, Cervantes
Why was the printing press the greatest invention of the age?
Greatest advancement in the preservation of knowledge
Who is given credit for inventing it?
What were the general characteristics of the Age of Exploration and discovery?
Second phase of European expansion, state sponsored ventures
Who led the way in the age of exploration and discovery?
Portugal and spain
Where did Europeans have their greatest initial impact?
What motivated the age of exploration and discovery?
Gold, Glory, and God
Why is Columbus so important to the Age of Exploration and Discovery
How were the spanish able to set up a worldwide empire so quickly?
The natives thought they were gods, superior weaponry, captured leaders
What were the results of the Spanish domination in the new world?
WEALTH, African slave trade, 200 towns in the new world
Who was ferdinand Magellan
Who were the other European powers who participated in the age of expansion?
English, French, Dutch
What resulted as more nations got involved in the Age of Exploration and Discovery/
Atlantic replaced the Med, commercial capitalism, expansion of geographic knowledge.
What was the major result of the Reformation?
Split up the Christian Church
Why was the reformation both a forward and backward looking movement?
looked back on the Golden age of the Christian Church and forward to the legacy of the church
What were two FUNDEMENTAL questions asked during the Reformation?
How was one saved and where does ultimate authority lie in christianity
What were the long range causes of the reformation in the changing spirit of the times?
Church was viewed as outdated
What were the long range causes of the reformation in politics?
Secular rulers were rejecting political claims of the Church
What were the long range causes of the reformation in economics?
Secular rulers were attempting to confiscate Church Wealth
What were the long range causes of the reformation in Spirit?
Clergy was accused of being worldly, ignorant and immoral
Who were some of the individuals and groups raising serious issues about the condition of the Roman Church around 1500?
Secular rulers, concilarists, humanists, heretics, mystics, educated lay people
What was the spark that ignited the Reformation?
Luther's 95 Thesis
Who was the first Protestant Reformer?
How successful was Lutheranism?
What was Lutheranism' appeal?
That every person could be saved using just the bible and prayer
How was Lutheranism Legalized?
The peace of Augsburg?
Where did Lutheranism spread?
Where did Protestantism take hold in Europe?
What was the greatest problem Protestantism face?
Failure to Unite
What were the major results of the Protestant Reformation?
Split up of the christian church and the set up of other reformations
Why was Protestantism successful in the areas where it took root?
Protestant leadership and message, Roman church's paralysis, support of secular rulers, and the printing press
Where did Protestantism take root?
Most of Europe
Why did catholic authorities fail to take effective action against the Protestants right away?
Wrong leadership, didn't take the situation seriously, fear of conciliarism
What were the religious options of Roman Catholicism at the beginning of the Reformation?
Go out of business, compromise with the protestants, take a "live and let live" attitude, reform itself, or be defiant towards the protestants
What happened during the pre-Luther phase (before 1517) of the Catholic reform era?
Signs that the church was beginning to address the need for reform and the pre-Lutheran Program
What happened during the Post-Luther phase (after 1517) of the Catholic reform era?
They intensified the internal reformation and committed efforts to battle the protestants
Why were the Jesuits so important in the Catholic Reformation Era?
Pleasing Church services/sermons, Pioneered the Baroque architecture style, Pioneered the confession system, a SHIT load of plays and ballets (poor mans bible), Schoolmasters of Europe
What came out of the council of Trent?
Reaffirmation of papal supremacy, Created the index of prohibited literature, Fixed the Role of the Bishop
What position did the Catholic Church take in regard to Protestantism for the next 500 years?
A Fortress mentality
Why was spain so powerful at the beginning of the 16th century?
Greatest military power, wealthiest state, the 1st global power, great cultural era for them
What was spains relationship with the Catholic Church at the beginning of the 16th century?
Best buddies, ready to defend it
Who was the ruling family of spain at the beginning of the 16th century?
Why were the Hapsburgs the most powerful family in Europe between 1500 and 1650?
Marriages that gave them inheritance
What were the aims of Charles V?
Keep his possessions/territory and protect Catholicism
What challenges did Charles V face?
His territories were scattered/not intact and they had diverse groups with different traditions, languages and religions
Why were Charles V's ambitions thwarted?
As he was fighting one enemy, one other was trying to attack him
What happened after Charles V abdicated in 1556?
His empire was split between his son and his brother
Who was Philip II?
Charles V's son
What did Philip II aim to accomplish?
Protect Catholicism, keep Spain together, keep his power in Spain absolute
What were successes that Philip II had during his reign?
Moved the capital to Madrid, build the escorial, annexed Portugal
What were the failures of Philip II's reign?
Continual bankruptcy, lack of economic base, loss of population, his management style