Timur the Lame
Mongolian Khan from Iran, from 1336-1404
Ferdinand and Isabella
1.) United Aragon and Castile as spain 2.) Reconquista 3.) Hired Columbus to find an western route to india. 4.) Grandparents of Carlos I (Charles V)
The Medici Family
Prominent banking in Italy, ruled Florence hired many famous artists and had many popes come out of their family.
Rediscovered Cicero's letters, was a famous poet, started the 14th century Renaissance.
Sistine Chapel (Some of this), commisioned by the Medici family he was also a Sculptor, and Painter.
Leonardo Da Vinci
The Ideal Renaissance man was talented in sculpting painting and inventing. Famous works include the Vetruvian man, the mona lisa, and the Last supper.
catholic priest humanist ninja, First person to publish thte new testament in greek.
Inventor of the moveable type printing press
Writer and Poet out of Englands Renaissance.
Miguel de Cervantes
Author of Don Quixote of Spain.
Henry the Navigator
employed many portuguese explorations to Africa and the West
Vasco Da gama
First Portuguese man that sailed under the rains in Africa and sailed to India.
Sailed for spain and landed in the "West Indies" Cuba, and The Dominican Republic.
English Reformer who believed in a vernacular language for mass and translated the bible. He influenced the Bohemian reformer Jan Hus
Charles the V (Carlos I)
Charles the V was the Holy Roman Empire of Habsburg descent who also was the Heir to the spanish kingdom.
Was a radical reformer during Luther's era ordered the removal of vestiges and any art from the chapel in Wittenberg.
Swiss reformer that believed that the Eucharist was not true body and blood, but rather just symbolic. He debated Luther at the Marburg Colloquy.
French Reformer, that sought refuge in Geneva switzerland, TULIP rather then LUTHER.
Married many wives and divorced them started the Anglican church in England after he was not allowed an Annulment against Catherine of Aragon the aunt of Charles the V
Catherine of Aragon
Married Henry the VIII, and was the Aunt of Charles V. First female ambassador to the English Crown from Aragon.
She was a beautiful young lady that Married Henry the VIII and was later beheaded by him for not giving him a heir.
One of Henry the VIII's wives. She gave Henry his only male Heir and died shortly afer childbirth.
Was a scholar that studied under Martin Luther, and continued the Reformation after Luther's death. Authored the Augsburg Confession.
Suleiman the Magnificent
Expanded the Ottoman empire all the way to Vienna, broke from Ottoman tradition and married a harem and ruled the mediterranean.
Ignatius of Loyola
Founded the Jesuits
Spanish Conquistador who destroyed the Aztec empire with only 600 men.
Conquistador who conquered the Inca empire.
Queen of England who grew up in France
Son of Carlos I saw the rise and fall of Spanish power
Manorial System (Feudalism)
Breakdown of the Manorial System
Lords and fiefs - own land
Vassals + Homage - manage land
serfs - work the land
Circumvented the guild system by getting charters to start their own towns where people could go buy goods.
differed from monastic orders in that they did not own the land they lived on and were poor and owned little to know property and everything they had was donated to them.
Isabella and Ferdinand retaking spain from the moors
imitation of christs life through voluntary poverty.
Movement to make Councils above popes, condemed Hus and Wycliffe .
Believed that infant baptism was a heresy and only did adult baptism they also believed that christians should exclude themselves from society.
founded by Henry the VIII when the pope would not anull his marriage it is essentially the catholic church without the pope.
The cause for all the Lutheran Confession of faiths (Augsburg confession) gnesio lutherans vs. Phillipsts resulted in the Formula of Concord
Hernan cortes vs the Aztecs takes 600 men, and conquers the astecs whose Capital was 200,000 people strong.
Historical publishing of a spanish priests works as propaganda demonizing the Spanish.
- Penisulares (the people from Spain)
- Creoles (Spanish people born out of spain)
- Mixed races of people.
4th Lateran Council
Affirmed many of the Catholic beliefs more specifically Transubstantiation and Celibacy of Priests
The Black Death
Bubonic plague the eliminated half of Europes population, came from China.
Hundred Years War
Fought between France and England inconsisitently over a 100 year span
Made by the pope and split the New world between the Spanish and the Portuguese
The Peasants War in Germany
Started by radical protestant thinking that resulted in the stripping of art and other things from the church and taught bible alone.
Meeting setup by Phillip of Hesse between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli, Ultimately no agreement to unite Protestantism was reached between Luther and Zwingli.
War of the Roses
Henry tudor defeated Richard the III who was the Last Plantagenet.
France vs. Habsburg in Italy
Holy Roman emperor vs. The Lutheran Princes (United as the Schmalkald league)
Peace of Augsburg
Princes within the Holy Roman Empire could decide if they wanted their province to be Lutheran, or Catholic.
Council of Trent
Officially condemned protestantism and reaffirmed Transubstantion, Condemns Justification by faith and Sola Scriptura
St. Bartholomews Day Massacre
Massacre arranged by Catherine de Medici of French Huguenots when the King of France was getting married to a protestant women.
Eighty Years War
War started by the Netherlands after Phillip II ascended the crown lasted 80 years.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Occured in 1588 at the hands of the English, they lost 1/2 of their fleet
Edict of Nantes
Permitted the "reformed" to stay in France and worship peacebly but only in designated areas and could only sell their books and education in the designated areas