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Neuroanatomy final exam > Hist- respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hist- respiration Deck (40):
1

what are the 3 principal functions of the respiratory system?

1) Air Conduction
2) Air Filtration
3) Gas Exchange (respiration

2

the functional divisions of the respiratory system:

1) conducting system
2) respiratory system

3

the ________ division is where gas exchange (i.e. respiration) takes place

respiratory

4

the first part of the respiratory division is the _________

respiratory bronchioles

5

Pulmonary blood vessels (coming from right side of heart) enter the lung with the ______ and branch as they follow the what?

enter with the bronchi

branch as they follow the bronchiole tree

6

what play a significant role in conditioning the incoming air?

Mucous and serous secretions

7

Cilia of respiratory epithelium sweep the mucous with the trapped particulate matter toward the _____

pharynx

8

Respiratory Epithelium is made of:

Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

9

______ cells are stem cells from which all other respiratory cell types arise

basal cells

10

the conducting system's walls mucosa is divided into what 2 regions?

1) respiratory epithelium
2) lamina propria

11

the conducting system is wrapped in a layer of ______

adventitia

12

the pharynx behind the nasal cavity and oral cavity are divided regionally into the:

A) nasopharynx
B) oropharynx
C) laryngopharynx

13

the nasopharynx is made of ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, while the other 2 regions are composed of what?

nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

14

although most of the larynx is covered with respiratory epithelium, the luminal surface of the vocal folds is covered in what?

nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

15

the larynx includes irregularly shaped ____________

plates of cartilage

16

what parts of the pharynx are made of hyaline cartilage?

thyroid and cricoid cartilages

17

what parts of the pharynx are made of elastic cartilage?

epiglottis, cuneiform, and corniculate cartilages

18

the arytenoid cartilages are made of what?

a mix of hyaline and elastic cartilage

19

the tracheal cartilages and trachealis muscle separate what?

the submucosa from the adventitia

20

name the order of air flow, starting with the primary bronchi:

1) primary (main) bronchi
2) second (lobar) bronchi
3) tertiary (segmental) bronchi
4) bronchioles
5) terminal bronchioles

21

at which bronchi levels do we see extensive branching?

A) Tertiary (segmental) bronchi
B) bronchioles

22

as the conducting pathway branches get smaller, we see less _______ and more ______

less cartilage, more smooth muscle

23

as we go down the conducting pathway, the height of lining epithelial cells _______

decreases

24

which main bronchus is much shorter, wider, and more vertical?

right bronchus

25

each lobar bronchi supplies/enters what?

a lobe of the lung (right has 3, left has 2)

26

the left lung has _____ tertiary/segmental bronchi, while the right lung has ______

left lung- 8-10

right lung- 10

27

the smooth muscle layer of bronchi is called the ________

the muscularis

28

the Submucosa layer in larger bronchi contains what?

seromucous glands

29

______ cells are present in the largest of bronchioles but begin to decrease

goblet

30

_____________ are the first place that allow gas exchange

respiratory bronchioles

31

what are the segments of the respiratory system? (start at the largest segment)

A) Respiratory Bronchioles
B) alveolar ducts
C) alveolar sacs
D) alveoli

32

where are Clara cells found? what is their function?

found in terminal bronchioles & respiratory bronchioles

secrete lipoprotein that prevents bronchiolar wall adhesion during exhalation

33

T/F: clara cells are found interspersed with ciliated cells in the bronchioles

true

34

Type 1 alveolar cells:

- AKA alveolar surface epithelial cells
- squamous cells
- lines 95% of alveolar surface

35

Type 2 alveolar cells:

- AKA septal cells
- cuboidal cells
- cover approximately 5% of alveolar surface

36

__________ discharge a phospholipid called surfactant

Type 2 alveolar cells

37

what is the role of Alveolar Macrophages (AKA dust cells)

phagocytize inhaled particulate matter and red blood cells.

38

_______ compose the wall of alveolar capillaries

Endothelial Cells

39

The air in an alveolus and the blood in the capillary is separated be a respiratory membrane, the ____________

blood-air barrier

40

what are the layers of the blood-air barrier?

1) Surface lining & cytoplasm of the alveolar cells
2) Fused basal laminae of alveolar cells &capillary cells
3) Cytoplasm of the endothelial/capillary cells