histo Flashcards Preview

Patho flash cards > histo > Flashcards

Flashcards in histo Deck (203):
1

Form of chromatin that is most abundant

Euchromatin - active form

2

Site of DNA transcription

Nucleus

3

Responsible for ribosomal RNA synthesis

Nucleolus

4

A complex of DNA, histone and non-histone proteins

Chromatin

5

3 zones of nucleolus

Granular zone (pars granulosa): maturing ribosomes. Dense fibrillar zone (pars fibrosa): active zone. Fibrillar center: inactive DNA

6

Heterochromatin vs. Euchromatin

Heterochromatin - condensed/dark, inactive, Barr Body. Euchromatin - dispersed/light, actively transcribed.

7

Barr bodies in Klinefelter's Syndrome

One 47XXY

8

Superfemale will have how many Barr Bodies?

Two 47XXX

9

Site of ATP synthesis

Mitochondria

10

Synthesis of membrane phospholipids, and steroid hormones. Drug detoxification. FA elongation.

Smooth ER

11

Synthesis of secretory and membrane proteins. Co-translational modification of proteins.

Rough ER

12

Site of protein sorting and packaging

Golgi apparatus

13

Site of mRNA translation into amino sequence

Free ribosomes

14

Organisms with abundant smooth ER

Ovaries, testes, adrenals

15

Organs with abundant rough ER

Pancreas, thyroid

16

Organs with abundant mitochondria

Red muscle fibers

17

Glycogen storage disease with a defect in lysosomal metabolism

Pompe's Disease (type II): acid maltase deficiency - muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory failure

18

Mechanical support for cells

Microfilament - actin, myosin

19

Cytoskeleton that can function as a tumor marker

Intermediate filament - link between extracellular matrix, cytoplasm and nucleus

20

Intracellular vesicle and organelle transport. Ciliary and flagellar movement.

Microtubule (A and B tubulin) - centrioles in mitosis and meiosis

21

Thinnest of all cytoskeletons

Microfilaments - function inhibited by Amanita mushroom toxin

22

Tumor marker: endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle, fibroblast, chondroblast

Vimentin

23

Tumor marker: skeletal and smooth muscle

Desmin

24

Tumor marker: neurons

Neurofilament

25

Tumor marker: epithelial cells

Cytokeratin

26

Tumor marker: inner membrane of nuclear envelope

Laminins A, B, C

27

ATPase activity for movement of vesicles (toward axon terminal)

Kinesin - anterograde transport

28

ATPase activity toward cell body

Dynein - retrograde transport

29

ATPase activity for elongation of nerve axons

Dynamin

30

Anti inflammatory drug that acts on tubules of cells

Colchicine

31

Anticancer drugs that act on microtubules of cells

Vinblastine, Vincristine, Paclitaxel (Taxanes)

32

Microtubule polymerization defect that results in decreased ability for phagocytosis

Chediak Higashi Syndrome - recurrent pyogenic infections, partial albinism, peripheral neuropathy

33

Anchor epithelial cells to the underlying basal lamina

Hemidesmosomes - involved in Bullous Pemphigoid

34

Collagen in the basal lamina

Type IV collagen

35

Prevents or retards the diffusion of material across an epithelium

Zonula occludens - tight or leaky

36

Filaments in zonula adherens

Actin filaments

37

Attach 2 adjoining cells with a plaque called desmoplakin

Desmosomes (macula adherens) - involved in Pemphigus vulgaris

38

What parts of the brain does the BBB not protect?

Roof of 3rd and 4th ventricles, roof of diencephalon, pineal gland

39

Opens the BBB by temporarily shrinking the endothelial cells and stretching the tight junctions between them

Mannitol

40

Contains actin. Seen in brush border of apical layers of cells

Microvilli - function to increase cell surface area

41

Long microvilli. Found in vas deferens, hair cells of inner ear and epididymis

Stereocilia

42

Cilium found in the sensory epithelium of the inner ear

Kinocilium

43

Microorganisms that uses flagellum for locomotion

Giarda, Trichimonas, H pylori

44

Primary cilia dyskinesia. Defect in dynein arms.

Kartagener syndrome - infertility, absent mucociliary clearance (chronic sinusitis), situs invertus (dextrocardia)

45

Eukaryotic function: sensory and movement of fluid

Cilia

46

Provides tissue with smooth surface for easy movement

Hyaline - bluish white and semi transparent, numerous chondrocytes, (+) perichondrium

47

Provides support, flexibility and shape

Elastic cartilage - yellowish, (+) perichondrium

48

Shock absorber, deepens bone sockets

Fibrocartilage - chondrocytes scattered among thick interlace of collagen fibers, (-) perichondrium

49

Vitamin influence of bone

Vit D

50

Unmineralized bone

Osteoid

51

Most abundant type of bone cell

Osteocytes

52

Cell responsible for bone resorption

Osteoclasts - multinucleated cells from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells

53

Bone cell that expresses receptors for PTH, Vit D and estrogen

Osteoblast - mononuclear cells that synthesize most of the protein in the bone

54

Trabecular or spongy bone

Cancellous bone - less dense, softer, weaker and less stiff

55

Compact bone

Cortical bone - 80% of the weight of the skeleton

56

Bone where hematopoiesis takes place. More affected in osteoporosis

Cancellous bone

57

Functional unit of a compact bone

Osteon/haversion system

58

Layer of bone matrix between concentric rings of osteocytes

Lamellar

59

Houses the osteocytes

Lacunae

60

Houses the osteoclast

Howship's lacunae

61

Protoplasmic extensions from osteocytes by which maintenance of bone is performed

Canaliculi

62

Connects one haversian canal to another

Volkmann's canal

63

Permanent flexion contracture of the hand at the wrist (claw-like). Due to a fracture at the elbow or upper arm.

Volkmann's contracture - ulnar nerve affected, brachial artery compressed, muscles involved are FDP and FPL

64

X-ray: sunburst, fir tree or moth eaten

Osteosarcoma - most common primary bone Ca

65

Triangular area of new subperiosteal bone that is created when a lesion (tumor) raises the periosteum away from the bone

Codman Triangle

66

Deficiency of Type 1 Collagen

Osteogenesis imperfecta

67

Deficiency of Type IV Collagen

Alport syndrome - deafness, eye disorders, hereditary nephritis

68

Type 2 cytotoxic immune response that presents with hematuria and hemoptysis

Goodpasture Syndrome - (+) glomerulonephritis

69

Epithelium in male urethra

Stratified columnar

70

Epithelium in fossa navicularis of male urethra

Stratified squamous non-keratinized

71

Histopathologic indicator of CNS injury

Gliosis

72

Conduct nerve impulse toward the cell body

Dendrites

73

Gaps between myelinated segments in the neuron

Nodes of Ranvier

74

Rough ER in the CNS

Nissl Substance - stacked RER

75

Stain used to localize Nissl substance

Aniline stain

76

Nissl substance moves and becomes concentrated in the periphery

Chromatolysis - fatigue or neuronal damage

77

Connective tissue cells of the nervous system

Neuroglia or Glial cells

78

Form myelin in the CNS

Oligodendrocytes

79

Phagocytic action in CNS

Microglia

80

Ependyma: circulation and absorption of CSF

Ependymyocytes - lines ventricle and central canals

81

Ependyma: transport CSF to the hypophyseal portal system

Tanycytes - line the floor of the 3rd ventricle

82

Ependyma: production of CSF

choroidal epithelial cells

83

Project foot processes in the capillaries

Astrocytes - buffer potassium concentration of CNS

84

Most common primary CNS tumor in children?

Astrocytoma

85

Myelinate axons in the PNS

Schwann cells

86

Tight junction between endothelial cells of capillaries

Blood brain barrier

87

Tight junctions between choroid epithelial cells

Blood CSF barrier

88

Found in squamous epithelial cells, gives skin tensile strength

Keratinocyte

89

Epidermal dendritic cells

Langerhan cells - antigen presenting cells

90

Origin of epidermis (outermost), devoid of blood vessels

Ectodermal

91

Origin of dermis

Mesodermal

92

Layer of loose vascular connective tissue with adipocytes

Hypodermis

93

Melanin is formed from what amino acid?

Tyrosine

94

Sweat glands found everywhere that secretes a clear and odorless substance

Eccrine or Merocrine

95

Produce pheromones via adrenergic stimulation

Apocrine glands

96

Abnormal aggregation of cells that may be seen in SCC

Keratin pearls

97

The endoplasmic reticulum in the muscles

Sarcoplasmic reticulum - terminal cisternae stores the calcium

98

Part of the sarcomere that does not shorten during muscle contraction

A band

99

Released by damaged muscle fibers into the bloodstream and causes renal failure

Myoglobin

100

Segment of adenohypophysis that contains MSH

Pars intermedia

101

Procedure for surgical access to a sellar lesion

Transnasal Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy

102

Resting or reserve cells in the anterior pituitary

Chromophobes

103

Most abundant cell type in the adenohypophysis

Somatotropes - secretes growth hormone

104

Dilatations of axon terminals filled with vesicles containing ADH and oxytocin in the posterior pituitary

Herring bodies

105

Calcified structures in the pineal gland

Corpora arenacea - "brain sand"

106

Endocrine cells of the pancreas

Islet of Langerhans - large, light staining

107

Exocrine cells of the pancreas

Pancreatic acini - dark staining, small, berry like clusters, pyramidal in shape

108

Produces thyroglobulin

Follicular cells (thyroid epithelial cells)

109

Produce calcitonin

Parafollicular cells

110

Produce PTH

Chief cells - small, polygonal, dark staining cells

111

Cells in parathyroid gland that presents at puberty. Function is unknown.

Oxyphil cells - large, light staining

112

Most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism

Renal failure

113

Hallmark of hypocalcemia

Tetany

114

Vertebral level of adrenal glands

T11

115

Largest area of adrenal gland

zona Fasciculata - pale staining cells in cords, (+) lipid droplets

116

From neuroectoderm. Secrete epinephrine, NE and dopamine

Chromaffin cells - weakly basophilic columnar cells

117

Most common location of extra adrenal pheochromocytoma

Organ of Zuckerkandl - near origin of IMA, to the L of the aortic bifurcation

118

Most abundant papillae in the tongue. Mechanical function only, no taste buds.

Filliform - thin, long, V shaped, with increased keratinization

119

Tongue papillae associated with Von Ebner's glands

Circumvallate papillae

120

Salivary gland is what type of gland?

Compound acinar

121

70% of the saliva is produced by this gland

Submandibular gland - serous secretion, CN VII innervation

122

What layer is missing in the esophagus?

Serosa

123

Presence of this cell in the esophagus is characteristic of Barrett's metaplasia

Goblet cells

124

Partial tear of the esophagus

Mallory weiss

125

Full thickness tear of the esophagus. Considered a surgical emergency

Boerhaave syndrome

126

Located in the submucosa of the duodenum. Alkaline secretion

Brunner's glands - rich in mucous and bicarbonate

127

Enzymes found in enterocytes

Lactase, Enterokinase, Maltase, Peptidase, Sucrase

128

Antibacterial activity (lysozyme) in the crypts of lieberkuhn

Paneth cells

129

80% of bile is absorbed in what intestinal segment?

Terminal ileum

130

Peyer's patches are found in what part of the SI?

Ileum

131

Lining of the stomach

Simple columnar epithelium

132

Muscularis externa of stomach

Inner oblique, middle circular, outer longitudinal

133

Lining of small intestines

Simple columnar epithelium with villi and goblet cells

134

Muscularis externa of small intestine

Outer longitudinal, inner circular

135

What makes the colon different from the small intestines?

HAT: haustra, appendices epiplocae, taenia coli

136

Principal parenchymal cells of the liver

Hepatocytes - large polyhedral cells with large centrally located nucleus

137

Liver macrophages found in the sinusoids

Kuppfer cells

138

Stores Vit A in the liver, found in the Space of Disse

Ito cells

139

Lining of gallbladder

Tall columnar cells with microvilli - except terminal ducts (cuboidal epithelium)

140

Layer that the gallbladder lacks

Muscularis mucosae

141

Pockets in the GB mucosa. Acquired herniations.

Rokitansky-Aschoff Sinus

142

Most common area for a biliary enteric fistula to occur?

Duodenum

143

Lining of trachea, main bronchi, lobar bronchi and segmental bronchi

Pseudostratified ciliated squamous epithelium with goblet cells

144

Ratio between thickness of gland and the thickness of the wall that covers the bronchi

Reid's index - normal is <0.4

145

Protector of bronchial epithelium. Metabolize airborne toxins

Clara cells

146

Secrete surfactant and are capable of regeneration and repair

Type II pneumocytes

147

Heart failure cells seen in the lungs.

Hemosiderin laden macrophages - CHF, backflow of blood into lungs

148

Allow passage of bacteria and exudates between adjacent alveoli

Pores of kohn

149

Protein important in the maintenance of adequate oncotic pressure to prevent edema formation

Albumin

150

Lining of renal tubules

Simple cuboidal

151

Lining of proximal tubule

Low columnar with extensive brush border

152

Lining of loop of henle

Thin - simple squamous. Thick - simple cuboidal.

153

Lining of distal tubule

Simple cuboidal without brush border

154

Lining of collecting duct

Cuboidal

155

Cells in collecting duct that absorb Na and secrete K

Principal cells

156

Cells in collecting duct that absorbs HCO3 and K, and secretes H

Intercalated cells

157

Components of Glomerular Filtration Barrier

Capillary endothelium - filtration by size. Basement membrane and Podocyte foot processes - filtration by charge.

158

Modified smooth muscle cells that secrete renin

JG cells - found in afferent arteriole

159

Monitors the concentration of Na in the DCT

Macula densa

160

Contains receptors for Angiotensin II and ANP

Mesangial cells

161

RBCs are able to utilize glucose as fuel through:

Substrate level phosphorylation

162

Where is EPO produced?

Interstitial cells of peritubular capillary bed

163

Protein that maintains the biconcave shape of RBCs

Spectrin

164

Least common of granulocytes

Basophils - large cytoplasmic granules

165

Important in immediate hypersensitivity reactions (Type I) and anaphylaxis

Basophils or mast cells - minor role in parasitic infections

166

Hematologic indicator of lead poisoning

Basiphilic stippling in RBCs

167

Most common type of WBC or PMN cells

Neutrophils - multilobulated nucleus

168

Involved in immune responses against parasites and viruses

Eosinophils - bilobulated nucleus with pink orange granules

169

Allergic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that presents as heartburn and food impaction

Eosinophilic esophagitis - trachealization of esophagus

170

Lymphocytes in cell mediated immunity

T cells

171

Lymphocytes in humoral immunity (antibodies)

B cells

172

Lymphocytes that defends the host from tumors and virally infected cells

Natural killer cells

173

Changes on this surface molecule is recognized by NK cells

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class 1

174

Can differentiate into macrophages and densritic cells to elicit an immune response

Monocytes - large, bilobulated U shaped nucleus

175

Fragments of megakaryocytes that are stored in the spleen. Releases serotonin causing vasoconstriction

Platelets/Thrombocytes - life span of 5 to 9 days

176

Predisposing factors in thrombus formation: Virchow's Triad

Stasis of blood flow, hypercoagulability, endothelial injury

177

Platelet abnormality in which they lack glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

Glanzmann's Thrombosthenia - normal PT, PTT and platelet count but prolonged bleeding time

178

Y shaped protein produced by B cells that recognizes a unique part of a foreign target or an antigen

Immunoglubulins - paratope on each tip of the Y that recognizes an epitope on an antigen (lock an key)

179

Secretory immunoglobulin in mucosal areas

IgA

180

Functions as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens

IgD - activates basophils and mast cells to produce antimocrobial factors

181

Binds to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells and basophils

IgE - also protects against parasitic worms

182

Only antibody capable of crossing the placenta and giving passive immunity to the fetus

IgG - provides majority of antibody based immunity against pathogens

183

Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG

IgM

184

Middle vascular layer of eye

Uvea

185

First and most powerful structure of the eye

Cornea

186

Center of our central vision

Fovea - highest concentration of cone cells

187

Enable the lens to change its shape

Zonula

188

Film of the eye

Retina

189

Relay station of the visual cortex

Lateral geniculate body

190

Keeps images focused in the retina

Lens

191

Where aqueous humor is produced

Ciliary body

192

Structures that are blocked in glaucoma

Canal of schlemm

193

Oval shaped highly pigmented yellow spot near the center of the retina

Macula

194

Scotopic visions, sensitive to scattered light, low VA, slow response to light, confer achromatic vision

Rods - loss can cause night blindness

195

Photopic vision, sensitive to direct light, high VA, confer a central vision

Cones - loss can cause legal blindness

196

Lining of epithelium of the eye exposed to air

Stratified squamous non keratinized

197

Thickest layer of cornea

Stroma - collagen type 3 and 4

198

Lining of endothelium of eye exposed to aqueous humor

Simple squamous

199

Highly elastic basement membrane in the eye covered by a single layer of cuboidal cells

Capsule

200

Lining of external surface of tympanic membrane

Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

201

Internal surface of tympanic membrane lining

Simple squamous epithelium

202

Kinetic labyrinth: angular deceleration and acceleration

Semicircular ducts - cells are covered by a gelatinous mass called cupula

203

Static labyrinth: linear acceleration and pull of gravity

Utricle and saccule - cells are covered by otoliths