HISTO LAB - CT Flashcards Preview

► Med Misc 05 > HISTO LAB - CT > Flashcards

Flashcards in HISTO LAB - CT Deck (179):
1

– responsible for providing and maintaining form


CONNECTIVE TISSUE

2

-made up mainly of non-living material, extracellular matrix

CONNECTIVE TISSUE

3

-matrix: physically links cells and tissues, gives mechanical support to the different organs

CONNECTIVE TISSUE

4

-contains blood vessels and nerves; serves the needs of avascular epithelium

CONNECTIVE TISSUE

5

CT component
CT Cells originate from -----------------

precursor cells in primitive mesenchyme

6

ct fibers are made up of

proteins and polysaccharides

7

most abundant protein in the human body

collagen

8

-key element of all CT, basement membrane, external laminae of muscles and nerve cells

collagen

9

-synthesizes collagen and reticular fibers

collagen

10

CT fiber
may be arranged as parallel fibers or discontinuous sheets
-has properties of stretching and elastic recoil

elastin

11

GS is hydrophobic or hydrophilic

hydrophilic

12

-form a medium for the passage of molecule throughout supporting tissues

ground substance

13

-for the exchange of metabolites with the circulatory system

ground substance

14

-gel-like: serves as lubricant, barrier to invasive microorganism

ground substance

15

embryonic CT which originates from the mesoderm and neural crest ectoderm

1. Mesenchymal CT

16

Mesenchymal CT originates from?

mesoderm and neural crest ectoderm

17

fibers of Mesenchymal CT

uniformly distributed sparse collagen fibers (reticular type)

18

cells of Mesenchymal CT

undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (a homogenous population of cells but may also have stem/progenitor cells)

19

transient type of tissue

mucoid CT

20

LOCATION OF MUCOID CT

-location: umbilical cord and fetal organs

21

-matrix of mucoid ct


jelly-like

22

-fibers: mucoid ct

delicate network of collagen fibers

23

-cells:mucoid ct

scattered star-shaped fibroblasts (w/ flattened processes that appear to fuse with neighboring cells)

24

-ground substance: mucoid ct

soft, very abundant, appears homogenous in fresh state, composed chiefly of hyaluronic acid

25

-residue: contains granules and fibrillar precipitates when fixed; exhibits staining reactions of mucin

mucoid CT

26

– most widely distributed CT




1. Loose/Areolar CT

27

CT found in almost every microscopic section of the body

1. Loose/Areolar CT

28

-fills up empty spaces

1. Loose/Areolar CT

29


-serves as packing and anchoring material

1. Loose/Areolar CT

30

-supports epithelium where it encompasses the lamina propia (thick layer beneath the epithelial lining of stomach and intestines)

1. Loose/Areolar CT

31

-flexible, but not very resistant to stress
-richly supplied with blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves

1. Loose/Areolar CT

32

-cells of loose ct:

holds a collection of all types of cells, more abundant than fiber

33

-ground substance of loose ct:

moderate

34

-cells: adipocytes which may be isolated, in small groups (loose and dense irregular CT), in large aggregates (fat)



2. Adipose CT

35

-efficient thermal insulators

2. Adipose CT

36

-primary storage site for neutral fats (triglycerides)

2. Adipose CT

37

-key regulators of the body’s overall energy metabolism

2. Adipose CT

38

-shock absorbers
-richly vascularized

2. Adipose CT

39

-cells of adipose ct:

adipocytes which may be isolated, in small groups (loose and dense irregular CT), in large aggregates (fat)

40

– spherical
-large due to the presence of a single lipid droplet
-nucleus appears flattened, displaced on one side
-surrounded by reticular fibers

*Adipocyte

41

what fibers surround an adipocyte

reticular

42

*As the number of adipocytes grow, they are pushed aside these fibers forming the ------------- (where other CT cells and blood vessels are located).

fibrous septum

43

2 Types of Adipose Tissue

– found only in fetus, newborn, hibernating animals
-function: heat production during the first months of postnatal life

2. Brown or Multilocular

44

2 Types of Adipose Tissue
20% of body weight
-function: reserve energy source through homeostatic mobilization & mobilization of triglycerides


1. White or Unilocular –

45

- forms the supportive stroma of lymphoid organs, hematopoietic bone marrow and endocrine glands

3. Reticular CT

46

-fibers of Reticular CT:

reticular fibers (Type III) which anastomose forming a delicated 3D closed-meshed network: lattice fibers

47

-cells of reticular ct:

reticular cells (modified fibroblasts)

48


-elements create a cell-lined system that allows passage of lymphocytes and lymph

Reticular CT

49


-contains most of the components found in loose CT
-but has more fibers and fewer cells

DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

50

-orientation and arrangement of collagen bundles make it resistant to stress

DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

51

– densely packed coarse Type I collagen
-fibers and cells oriented into parallel cylinders

1. Dense Regular CT

52

– main functional component of tendons and ligaments

• Dense regular collagenous or fibrous CT

53

is Dense regular collagenous or fibrous CT vascular or not

AVASCULAR

54

-cells of dense reg collagenous ct:

fibrocytes (appear stellate when the tendon is cut in cross section, sometimes termed tendinocytes)

55

– occurs infrequently




Dense elastic CT

56

-location of dense elastic

yellow ligaments (ligamentum flava) of vertebral column, suspensory ligaments of penis

57

fibers of dense elastic

-thick elastic fibers with thin collagen fibers + flattened fibroblasts

58

cells of dense elastic

-fibroblasts branch frequently and fuse with one another

59

-ground substance of dense elastic:

scanty

60

-individual fibers are surrounded by a network of reticular fibers
what type of ct

Dense elastic CT

61

– collagen fibers forming unaligned 3D meshwork

Dense Irregular CT

62

function of Dense Irregular CT

-function: provide resistance to stress in all directions (because of the haphazard arrangement)

63

location of Dense Irregular CT

-location: fasciae, reticular region of dermis, periosteum, joint capsules, membrane capsules around kidneys, liver, testes, lymph nodes, heart valves

64

ground substance of Dense Irregular CT

-ground substance: scanty, located between fibers and cells with some bv

65

cells of Diffuse Lymphoid CT

-cells: irregularly scattered in a loose manner lymphoid cells

66

stroma of Diffuse Lymphoid CT

reticular fibers + reticular cells

67

location of Diffuse Lymphoid CT

inter-nodular, deep cortical, medullary regions of lymph nodes
Peri-arteriolar lymphoid sheath of spleen
Nodular regions of tonsils and Peyer’s patches

68

CT with closely packed lymphoid cells

Dense lymphoid CT

69

– compact, circumscribed condensations of lymphocytes

Lymph nodules

70

– pale central portion of lymph nodules, with large lymphocytes showing mitotic figures;

Germinal center of Flemming/ Secondary nodules

71

site of active production of lymphocytes (but newly formed cells die locally and are disposed by macrophages)

Germinal center of Flemming/ Secondary nodules

72

– irregular elongated condensation of lymphocytes in the medulla of lymph node

Lymphatic cord

73

-plasma cells are more numerous in?

medullary cords

74

-only ------------ lymphocytes reach the CVS

small and medium-sized

75

----- do not circulate (under normal conditions)

large lymphocytes and plasma cells

76

– specialized fibrous CT composed of chondrocytes (islands of cells) surrounded by an intensely basophilic ECM
-avascular



CARTILAGE

77

-solid and firm, somewhat pliable (accounts for special resilient properties)

CARTILAGE

78

-key tissue in growing bones

CARTILAGE

79

-serves as shock absorbing and sliding area for joint

CARTILAGE

80

-facilitates bone movement

CARTILAGE

81

-cartilage matrix: serves as route for diffusion of nutrients, makes up 40% of cartilage, primarily composed of type II collagen and GS

CARTILAGE

82

a) – glassy, amorphous and homogenous staining matrix which appears bluish white



Hyaline

83

cartilage with -low cell-matrix ratio (more matrix)

hyaline cartilage

84

cells of hyaline

chondrocytes (w/in lacuna) are embedded and evenly distributed throughout the matrix

85

fibers of hyaline

-fibers: type II collagen fibers

86

GS of hyaline

-ground substance: abundant in acidic sulfhydryl group (sulphated proteoglycans) responsible for intense basohilia

87

-surrounded by perichondrium

elastic and hyaline cartilage

88

location of hyaline

-location: articular surfaces of synovial joints, walls of larger respiratory passages, temporary skeleton of fetus

89

– most resilient cartilage

b) Elastic

90

matrix of elastic cartilage

-matrix: opaque, high cell-matrix ratio (more cells)

91

fibers of elastic cartilage

-fibers: elastic fibers + type II collagen fibers

92

location of elastic cartilage

-location: pinna of ear, Eustachian tube, epiglottis, corniculate and cuneiform cartilages of larynx

93

least resilient cartilage


Fibrocartilage

94

location of fibrocartilage

-location: (regions subjected to pulling forces) intervertebral disks, articular disks of sterno-clavicular joint, other areas of insertion of tendons and ligaments

95

fibers of fibrocartilage

-fibers: type I collagen (makes the matrix acidophilic)

96

cells of fibrocartilage


-cells: chondrocytes in lacuna dispersed in linear arrangement

97

- vascularized, rigid

BONE

98

-dynamic plastic tissue

BONE

99

-heavily mineralized ECM, making It hard and brittle

BONE

100

storage depot for: ?% calcium
?% phosphorus
?% Na and Mg

99% calcium
85% phosphorus
65% Na and Mg

101

BONE MATRIX compnents
– calcium and phosphorus
-impart strength, inflexibility, and hardness

A. Inorganic (65%)

102

BONE MATRIX compnents
– proteoglycan, GAGs, glycoproteins, type I collagen fibers

B. Organic (35%)

103

BONE CELLS
– derived from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells
-have the capacity for mitosis
-found adjacent to newly formed bone matrix

A. Osteoprogenitor cells

104

BONE CELLS
– originate from osteoprogenitor cells
-squamous, cuboidal or columnar
-with basophilic cytoplasm
-responsible for formation of bone matrix
-found on surfaces of developing bones

Osteoblasts

105

BONE CELLS
- mature, principal cells of fully formed bone
-flattened cells, oval nucleus
-function: maintain mineralized matrix

Osteocytes

106

BONE CELLS
– giant, multinucleated cells
-seen in areas where active bone resorption occurs

Osteoclasts

107

Types of Bone
– has trabeculae or spicules, regions between are filled with bone marrow
-osteocytes and numerous BV lie within the immediate vicinity of this bone
-occupy greater part of epiphysis

1. Spongy or Cancellous

108

Types of Bone
solid mass occupying the shaft or diaphysis
-presence of osteons
-interstitial lamellae: layers of bone between haversian systems
-Volkmann’s canals: vascular channels w/c connect adjacent Haversian canals

2. Compact or Dense

109

– specialized CT surrounding the bone periphery; made up of osteoprogenitor cells

Periosteum

110

– supporting tissue lining the medullary canal of bones; made up of osteoprogenitor cells

Endosteum

111

endosteum is made up of what cells

osteoprogenitor

112

–bone development, growth, maturation

OSTEOGENESIS or HISTOGENESIS OF BONE

113

OSTEOGENESIS or HISTOGENESIS OF BONE involves

a. osteoblast formation
b. mineral deposition
c. bone remodelling at resoprtion sites

114

formed at diaphysis
-site of increase bone diameter

*Primary ossification center –

115

located at epiphysis
-site of longitudinal bone growth

*Secondary ossification center –

116

– occurs in mesenchymal membrane
-condensation of mesenchymal cells leads to differentiation into osteoblasts to form primary bone tissue

1. Intramembranous ossification

117

-forms flat bones

1. Intramembranous ossification

118

-also contributes to the growth of short bones and thickening of long bones

1. Intramembranous ossification

119

-presence of hyaline cartilage (shape resembles a small bone)

Intracartilaginous /Endochondral ossification

120

-forms short and long bones

Intracartilaginous /Endochondral ossification

121


-allows functional stresses to be sustained during skeletal growth

Intracartilaginous /Endochondral ossification

122

region where bony shaft is separated from bony epiphysis

Epiphyseal plate –

123

5 zones of osteogenesis

1. Zone of reserve cartilage – resting zone
2. Zone of proliferation
3. Zone of maturation and of hypetrophy
4. Zone of cartilage degeneration (Calcified cartilage)
5. Osteogenic (ossification) zone

124

red fluid tissue that circulates through CVS, propelled by the pumping action of heart


BLOOD

125

relative volume of cells (45%) and plasma (55%)

Hematocrit

126

– upper part, WBC + platelets

Buffy coat

127

– method that displays diff cell types of peripheral blood to greatest advantage

Blood smear

128

– circulating, anucleated cells
-stain pink or salmon with eosin
-about 7.4 um
-size reference
--devoid of organelles and nucleus

1. RBC

129

–smallest and lightest
-tiny irregular masses of basophilic cytoplasm




Platelets

130

-derived from megakaryocytes in bone marrow

Platelets

131

-form clumps

Platelets

132

granules of platelets

-granules: alpha, beta, lambda

133

-function: blood clotting, clot retraction, clot dissolution

Platelets

134

– leukocytes with numerous granules & lobulated/segmented nucleus

Polymorphonuclear granulocytes

135

– fine violet/lilac/pink granules



1. Neutrophil

136

-3-5 lobes joined by nuclear strands

1. Neutrophil

137

-increase in number during bacterial infections

1. Neutrophil

138

-active phagocyte

1. Neutrophil

139

-heterochromatin (periphery of nucleus) & euchromatin (center of nucleus)

neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil

140

-less lobes, ______ mature

less

141

– large, coarse, bright red-orange granules

Eosinophils

142

-bilobed nucleus but small, 3rd lobe may be present

Eosinophils

143

-release arylsulfatase & histaminases at sites of allergic rxn

Eosinophils

144

phagocytosis of Ag-Ab complexes

Eosinophils

145

1st line of defense against parasite infection

Eosinophils

146

increase in number during allergic rxns and parasitic infections

Eosinophils

147

– not as numerous, rarest
-vary in size
-stain dark blue
-obscured nucleus
-heterochromatin (periphery of nucleus) & euchromatin (center of nucleus)
-activated: release histamines and leukotrienes that produce inflammatory response

Basophils

148

- few or no granules in cytoplasm

Mononuclear agranulocytes

149

1. – main functional cells of lymphatic/immune system



Lymphocytes

150

-show more variations in size

Lymphocytes

151

-ribosomes: basis for slight basophilia

Lymphocytes

152

-small: intensely staining, slightly indented, spherical nucleus, pale blue cytoplasm
-medium: more abundant cytoplasm, larger nucleus, less heterochromatic

Lymphocytes

153

– long life span
-involved in cell-mediated immunity

T lymphocytes

154

– variable life spans
-production of antibodies
-humoral immunity

B lymphocytes

155

– immune surveillance

NK Cells

156

–largest of all WBC



Monocytes

157

-many fine, small, dense azurophilic granules (lysosomes)

Monocytes

158

-leaves BV during inflammation and transforms into tissue macrophage

Monocytes

159

agranulocyte which participates in phagocytosis

Monocytes

160

-basophilic cytoplasm

Monocytes

161

-stains lightly than lymphocytes

Monocytes

162

-nucleus shape: round, oval, indented, horseshoe

Monocytes

163

Proteins found in 3 fibers

Collagen
Elastin
Fibrillin

164

Soluble fiber in blood

Fibrinogen

165

Insoluble fiber in blood

Fibrin

166

Unclotted blood

Plasma

167

Clotted blood

Serum

168

WBC with spongy nucleus and brainlike convolutions

Monocytes

169

Type of WBC
Vacuole may be present
Light gray cytoplasm

Monocyte

170

Formed element that is refractile

Platelets/thrombocytes

171

Forms the bulk of CT

ECM

172

Where cells and fibers are suspended

ECM

173

A fixed cell which produces GS and fibers

Fibroblast

174

Layer of CT that encloses glands

Capsules

175

What does eosinophil release at sites of allergic rxn

Arylsulfatases and histaminasrs

176

What does basophil release when activated?

Histamines and leukotrienes

177

In lymphocytes, these are the basis for slight basophilia

Ribosomes

178

Contain granules called lysosomes

Monocytes

179

-concentrates Ag and presents it to lymphocytes

Monocytes

Decks in ► Med Misc 05 Class (295):