HISTO LEC - Bone and Cartilage Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HISTO LEC - Bone and Cartilage Deck (142):
1

Consistency of ECM of cartilage

gel-like

2

a type of supportive CT which Bear Mechanical Stress without permanent distortion

cartilage

3

components of cartilage

chondrocytes and ECM

4

the chondrocytes of cartilage are located in a

lacuna

5

a component of cartilage responsible for the synthesis and excretion of ECM materials

chondrocytes

6

nourishment of cartilage is through

diffusion

7

cartilage is vascular or avascular

avascular

8

a dense irregular CT w/c surrounds the cartilage
vascular; has nerves and lymphatic vessels

perichondrium

9

perichondrium is only present in

hyaline and elastic cartilage

10

most common and most studied cartilage

hyaline

11

glassy and transparent/translucent cartilage

hyaline

12

bluish white and transluscent cartilage

hyaline

13

type of cartilage that serves as a temporary skeleton of the bone

hyaline

14

location of hyaline cartilage

Location: trachea, larynx, bronchi, anterior ends of ribs,

15

Function of hyaline

provides smooth surface for movement of joints,
flexibility and support

16

cartilage which Contains elastic fibers


Function = gives support, maintains shape, allows flexibility

elastic cartilage

17

cartilage Yellowish color when unstained

elastic cartilage

18

location of elastic cartilage

Found in external ear, auditory tubes, epiglottis.

19

Function of elastic cartilage

gives support, maintains shape, allows flexibility

20

type of cartilage Intermediate between Dense CT and Hyaline CT

fibrocartilage

21

type of cartilage
contains bundles of collagen in the matrix that are usually more visible under microscopy


fibrocartilage

22

location of fibrocartilage

Found in the pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs, and attachments of certain ligaments.

23

Function of fibrocartilage

support and fusion, and absorbs shocks.

24

cartilage that Do not possess distinct perichondrium

fibrocartilage

25

major component of intervertebral disks

Annulus fibrosus (Type I collagen)
Nucleus Pulposus (Hyaluronic acid)

26

type of supportive CT
Main constituent of the adult skeleton (206)
Mineralized Tissue

OSSEOUS TISSUE

27

Functions of osseous tissue:

>Support soft tissues and provides attachment
>Protects internal organs
>Stores minerals
>Hematopoiesis

28

component of osseous tissue responsible for tenacity,
elasticity, resilience

organic or living components

29

component of osseous tissue responsible for hardness and rigidity

Inorganic (non- living) components

30

found in lacuna(cavities), between layers (lamellae) of the bone matrix; located exclusively at the the surface of the bone matrix

Osteocytes:

31

bone formers; synthesize the organic components (peptidogycans, matrix products and type I collagen)

Osteoblasts:

32

giant cells involved in bone resorption and remodelling of bone tissue; and they are found in the endosteum

Osteoclasts:

33

mature bone cells

osteocytes

34

structural element of osseous tissue
thin cylindrical spaces
function for communication and exchange

Canaliculi:

35

function of canaliculi

function for communication and exchange

36

Forms the foci of hydroxyapatite formation

Matrix vesicles

37

New bone layer

Osteoid

38

Other secretions of the osteoblast

Osteocalcin

39

Osteoblast are derived from

Osteoprogenitor cells

40

Found in the endoteum and periosteum

Osteoblasts

41

Young form of osteocytes

Osteoblasts

42

Shape of lacuna

Spindle

43

Shape of osteocyte

Almond

44

Almond shaped with long cytoplasmic granules that penetrate the canaliculu

Osteocytes

45

Location of osteoclasts

Resorption bays or howship lacunae

46

Active state of osteoblasts

Cuboidal to columnar shape

47

Active state of osteoclast

Ruffled border

48

How many percent of matrix is inirganic

50%

49

3 components of matrix

Hydroxyapatite
Type I collagen
Osteonectin (promote calcification)

50

Fibers that bind periosteum to bone

Sharpey's fibers

51

Compact bone made up of

Osteob

52

Spongy bone made up of

Spicules/trabeculae

53

Types of periosteum

Fibrous layer
Cellular layer

54

Found in haversian canal
Function forcommunication between osteons
Horizontal junctions

Volkmann's canals

55

Location of brown adipose tissue

limited distribution

56

Location of reticular tissue

liver, spleen, lymph node

57

Location of adenoid tissue

Peyer's patches, lamina propria in villi of small intestine

58

Function of dense regular

provides attachment

59

function of dense irregular

provides strength

60


> support structures with some pressure and low friction
> areolar tissues

Loose CT

61


> resistance and protection
> predominance of collagen fibers
> dense regular or dense irregular

Dense CT

62

type of CT proper
Very common type of CT


Loose

63

type of CT proper
Supports epithelial tissues, forms a layer around blood vessels and fills the spaces between muscle and nerve fibers

Loose

64


type of CT proper
Contains all the CT components
> fibroblasts and macrophages (numerous)
> fibers

Loose

65

type of CT proper
Flexible, well vascularized but not very resistant to stress.

Loose

66

type of Loose CT

consists of all 3 types of fibers, several types of cells, and semi-fluid ground substance


Areolar CT

67

type of Loose CT
found in subcutaneous layer and mucous membranes, and around blood vessels, nerves and organs

Areolar CT

68

type of Loose CT
function = strength, support and elasticity

Areolar CT

69


consists of adipocytes;
"signet ring" appearing fat cells.



Adipose tissue

70

supports, protects and insulates, and serves as an energy reserve

Adipose tissue

71

Location: found in subcutaneous layer, around organs and in the yellow marrow of long bones

Adipose tissue

72

function = supports, protects and insulates, and serves as an energy reserve

Adipose tissue

73

type of adipose
long term energy storage
unilocular; signet ring appearance

White Adipose

74

why the multilocular adipose tissue is brown

many mitochondria

75

type of adipose
heat production
multilocular; limited distribution

brown

76

type of loose CT
Consists of fine interlacing reticular fibers and reticular cells

Reticular CT

77

type of loose CT
Function = forms the framework (stroma) of organs and binds together smooth muscle tissue cells

Reticular CT

78

type of loose CT
Found in liver, spleen and lymph nodes

Reticular CT

79

type of loose
Description:
consists of widely scattered fibroblasts embedded in jellylike ground substance

Mucous

80

Type of CT proper
Provide better resistance and protection

dense CT

81

Type of CT proper
Fewer cells and more fibers (collagen)

Dense CT

82

Consist mainly of collagen fibers arranged in parallel patterns

Dense Regular

83

Location:
tendons, ligament
Function:
provides attachment

Dense Regular

84

Description:
consists of collagen fibers randomly arranged and few fibroblast
Location:
perichondrium of cartilage, various organs (liver and kidney), pericardium of the heart
Function:
provides strength

dense irregular

85

irregularly scattered in a loose manner
Seen in: lamina propia of the villi of the small intestines and in some lymphoid organs
and Peyer’s patches.

adenoid tissue

86

Dense/compact lymphoid tissue consists of abundant lymphoid cells closely packed together, either as lymph nodules/lymph follicles or lymphatic cords.

adenoid tissue

87

ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FIRM CONSISTENCY OF CARTILAGE

GAGS PROTEOGLYCANS AND MACROMOLECULES AND FIBERS

88

location of hyaline

trachea
bronchi
anterior ends of ribs
larynx

89

functions of hyaline

provide smooth surface for movement of joints
flexibility and support

90

component of the matrix of hyaline
binds to GAGs, collagen type II and integrins to mediate adherence

chondronectin

91

composition of hyaline matrix

40% Type II collagen, type 6 and type 9

92

hyaline matrix is embedded in a

gel of proteoglycans and structural glycoproteins

93

shape of young chondrocytes

elliptical

94

group of chondrocytes is called

isogenous aggregates

95

metabolism of chondrocytes

anaerobic

96

growth of chondrocytes is maintained by

somatotropin

97

perichondrium is composed of what type of collagen

type I

98

Cartilage with elastic fibers

elastic cartilage

99

color of elastic cartilage when unstained

yellow

100

function of elastic cartilage

maintain shape, support, flexibility

101

elastic cartilage is found in

epiglottis, auditory tube, external ear

102

function of fibrocartilage

absorbs shock
support and fusion

103

location of fibrocaartilage

pubic symphysis
intervertebral discs

104

another name for type I collagen

annulus fibrosus

105

another name for hyaluronic acid

nucleus pulposus

106

functions of osseous tissue

protects internal organs
stores minerals
hematopoiesis
supports soft tissues
provides attachment

107

type of bone cells
; synthesize the organic components (peptidogycans, matrix products and type I collagen)

osteoblast

108

location of osteoclasts

endosteum

109

location of osteoblasts

endosteum and periosteum

110

a CT layer composed of osteoprogenitor cells that would later become osteoblasts and these are important in bone growth and repair

periosteum

111

target is the osteoblast and controls it activity by inhibiting osteoid production and release of a cytokine called osteoclast stimulating factor

PTH

112

target of PTH

osteoblast

113

new uncalcified layer is called

osteoid

114

other secretions of osteoblasts

osteocalcin

115

perforating canals; transverse or oblique canals

Volkmann Canal:

116

type of membrane
Line sealed internal cavities
Forms transudate

serous membrane

117

type of membrane
Line cavities that communicate with the exterior
Contain lamina propria

Mucous membranes

118

type of membrane
Covers the body surface

cutaneous

119

type of membrane
Incomplete lining within joint cavities
Produces synovial fluid which provides oxygen and nutrients to the chondrocytes

Synovial membrane

120

Location of white adipose tissue

--

121

Location of mucous CT

wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord

122

Location of dense regular

tendons, ligaments

123

Location of dense irregular

perichondrium of cartilage, pericardium of heart, various organs (liver and kidney)

124

Location of Areolar

found in subcutaneous layer and mucous membranes, and around blood vessels, nerves and organs

125

Location of loose CT

--

126

Function of Mucous Tissue

support

127

Function of Adenoid TIssue

?

128

Function of Reticular Tissue

forms stroma of organs
binds smooth muscle tissue cells

129

Function of Brown Adipose Tissue

heat production

130

Function of White Adipose Tissue

long term energy storage

131

Function of Dense CT

resistance and protection

132

Function of Areolar CT

strength, support and elasticity

133

Function of Loose CT

Support structure with some degree of pressure and low friction

134

Types of Specialized CT

Bone
Cartilage
Blood

135

Classification of CT

CT Proper and Specialized CT

136

Types of Loose CT

Areolar
Adenoid
Mucous
Reticular

137

Types of CT Proper

dense CT
Loose CT

138

Regions where bones are capped and surrounded by CT

Joints

139

Holds the bones together

Joints

140

Joinfree bone movement

Diarthroses

141

Joint
Limited or no bone movement

Synarthroses

142

> CT Linings of osseous tissue

> Endosteum
> Periosteum

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