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Year 2 - Musculoskeletal (DP) > Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology Deck (57)
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1

What are the three main features of skeletal muscle?

Striated
Unbranched
Multinucleate

2

What is a syncytium? Give an example?

A multinucleate cell that forms from fusion of many uninucleate cells
Skeletal muscle cell

3

How long and wide are skeletal muscle cells/fibres?

10-100 micrometre diameter
1,000-200,000 micrometre long

4

Where are the nuclei located in skeletal muscle cells?

At the peripheries

5

What is the sarcolemma?

Muscle cell membrane

6

What are muscle fibres grouped into?

Fascicles

7

What is the name for the connective tissue surrounding the following:
1. Single muscle fibre
2. Single fascicle
3. Whole muscle

1. Endomysium
2. Perimysium
3. Epimysium

8

What is a myofibril?

Sarcomeres end to end

9

How can you tell that the myofibrils are held in registry with one another?

Z-discs all aligned

10

What does a motor unit consist of?

One motor neurone
All muscle fibres it innervates

11

True or false; More muscles fibres in a motor unit = More precise movement control?

False
The fewer muscle fibres a motor neurone supplies in a unit, the more precise a movement will be

12

True or false; The muscle fibres supplied by a motor neurone are scattered throughout the muscle?

True (They are all the same fibre type but do not have to be bundled together)

13

How do the three types of skeletal muscle fibres appear on succinate dehydrogenase stain?

Type i - Blue
Type iia - Pale blue
Type iib - White

14

Rank the types of skeletal muscle fibres in terms of contractile speed

Type iib
Type iia
Type i

15

Rank the types of skeletal muscle fibres in terms of resistance to fatigue and explain why

Type i
Type iia
Type iib

16

What type of muscle fibre is dependent on oxidative metabolism?

Type i

17

What type of muscle fibre is dependent on anaerobic metabolism?

Type iib

18

What type of muscle fibre is most uncommon?

Type iia

19

What type of muscle fibres are the following terms describing;
1. Red
2. White
3. Produce least force
4. Produce most force
5. Intermediate

1. Type i
2. Type iib
3. Type i
4. Type iib
5. Type iia

20

What is this describing?
A semi-rigid substance that is very permeable. It is avascular and its cells are nourished vis diffusion through the ECM

Cartilage

21

What is this describing?
A rigid substance that is non-permeable. It receives nourishment from blood vessels

Bone

22

Where are chondrocytes found? Specifically?

Cartilage
In ECM - LAcuna

23

What is the name for immature chondrocytes?

Chondroblasts

24

What is the function of chondrocytes?

Secrete and maintain ECM

25

What is the most abundant component of hyaline cartilage?

ECM

26

What is the most abundant component of the ECM in cartilage? What % does it make up?

Water
75%

27

What makes up the rest of the ECM in cartilage? What % does it make up?

25% total
60% of which is Type ii Collagen:
- Forms 3D mesh
40% of which is proteoglycan aggregates:
- Made of GAGs
- Bound to core protein
- Often linked to hyaluronon

28

How does Type ii Collagen differ from Type i?

Finer (15-45nm vs 75nm)
Type i found in connective tissue

29

What are the three types of cartilage?

Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartilage

30

How do each type of cartilage appear?

Hyaline - Blue/White + Translucent
Elastic - Yellow
Fibrocartilage - White