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Flashcards in Histology Deck (52):
1

What is the cytoskeleton made up of?

Microfilaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules

2

What are microfilaments made of?

Actin

3

Where do microtubules originate from?

Centrosome

4

In what direction does kinesin move?

Towards the cell periphery

5

In what direction does Dynein move?

Towards the cell centre

6

Where is mRNA and tRNA transcribed?

Nucleus

7

Where is rRNA transcribed?

Nucleolus

8

What is synthesised in the rough ER?

Proteins and glycoprotein formation

9

What is synthesised in the smooth ER?

Lipids

10

What are the main functions of the golgi complex?

adds sugars, cleaves proteins and sorts into vesicles

11

Name the three types of intercellular junctions

Occluding, anchoring and communicating

12

What do desdemones do?

Link submembrane intermediate filaments of adjacent cells

13

Name the 4 basic tissue types

Epithelium
Connective tissue
Muscle
Nervous tissue

14

What do all epithelial cells have?

A basal lamina

15

What are the three different ways to describe epithelial shape?

Squamous, columnar, cuboidal

16

What kind of epithelium has only one layer?

simple

17

What kind of epithelium has two layers?

Stratified

18

What is pseudostratified epithelium?

When it appears to have multiple layers but is in contact with basal lamina

19

What are the two kind of glandular epithelia?

Exocrine or endocrine

20

What is soft connective tissue made of?

Bundles of collage fibres

21

What is cartilage?

Hard connective tissue

22

Name the tree types of muscle?

Smooth - Involuntary and non-striated
Skeletal - Voluntary and striated
Cardiac - striated

23

Name the three types of Glia cells of the CNS

Astrogytes, oligodenrocytes and microglia

24

Name the glia of the PNS

Schwann cells

25

What are the three main salivary glands?

Parotid, madibular and submandibular

26

Name the four main layers of the digestive tract

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis Externa
Series of Adventitia

27

Where is the site of RNA synthesis?

Nucleus

28

Euchromatin

DNA which is actively undergoing transcription

29

Heterochromatin

DNA which is still condensed and not actively undergoing transcription

30

Give an example of an inclusion

Lipid droplet

31

How are anchoring junctions formed?

Linked actin under the membrane of adjacent cells

32

What do hemidesdemones do?

Link the intermediate filament of a cell to the extracellular matrix

33

What produced the pores in communicating junctions?

Connexon protein

34

Haematoxylin

Has an affinity for acidic molecules and stains purple

35

Eosin

Has an affinity for basic substances and stains pink

36

Do endocrine cells have ducts?

No

37

Do exocrine cells have ducts?

Yes

38

In which direction do the products move in endocrine cells?

To the basal end - distributed in vasculature

39

In which direction do the products move in exocrine cells?

To the apical end - distributed via duct/lumen etc.

40

What does the extracellular matrix of connective tissue contain?

Fibres, tissue fluid and glycosaminoglycans

41

Fibroblasts

Maintain extracellular matrix

42

Adipose tissue

Fat cells

43

Osteocytes

Bone cells

44

Chondrocytes

Cells of cartilage

45

Describe the nucleus of skeletal muscle

Multi-lobed

46

Describe the nucleus of cardiac muscle

single centred nucleus

47

What is the connective tissue for the CNS and PNS?

CNS - meninges
PNS - epineurium

48

What is the mucosa broken up into?

Epithelium, lamina propria and muscularis mucosae

49

Function of the exocrine part of the pancreas

Makes digestive juice for small intestine

50

Function of the endocrine part of the pancreas

Islets of langherhan for insulin

51

Name the 5 types of white blood cell

Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes

52

Name the three layers of an artery

Tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventitia