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Cardiovascular - Yr1 > Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology Deck (28):
1

What are the three layers of the blood vessel?

tunica intima
tunica media
tunica adventitia

2

What is the tunica intima

single layer squamous epithelial cell (endothelium) supported by basal lamina (basement membrane) and connective tissue

3

what is the tunica media

smooth muscle

4

what is the tunica adventitia

supporting connective tissue

5

large vessels are also called what and why

elastic arteries have so many layers of elastic membrane to allow recoil. own blood supply (vasa vasorum)

6

what differences do the arterioles have

1 to 2 layers of media smooth muscle and almost no adventitia

7

what do capillaries have

endothelial and basal lamina

8

what are pericytes?

contractile connective tissue celled located at intervals in capillaries

9

what are the three types of capillaries

continuous - most common
fenestrated - mucosa of gut, endocrine glands, glomeruli of kindey
sinusoidal - lack a basal lamina and have large gaps. in spleen, bone marrow and liver

10

what helps the blood flow through the microvasculature

precapillary sphincter at the start

11

what makes capillary become venule

the acquisition of intermittent smooth muscle

12

what is the difference between veins and arteries

veins have a smaller media

13

valves are extension of what

tunica intima

14

what do the largest veins have?

longitudinal smooth muscle in the adventitia

15

name the layers of the heart wall from inside to outside

endocardium
myocardium
epicardium
visceral serous pericardium
pericardial cavity
parietal serous pericardium
fibrous pericardium
adipose

16

what are the layers of the endocardium?

endothelium
basal lamina
thin layer of collagen fibres
layer of denser connective tissue
in some areas subendocardium (loose connective tissue with blood vessels and nerves and branches f impulse conducting system [purkinje fibres])

17

what are the layers of the myocardium

bundles and layers of contractile cardiac muscles fibres individual muscle fibres w/ collagenous connective tissue w/ blood supply

18

what does a cardiac cell have?

a single nucleus
intercalated discs

19

what are intercalated discs off cardiac muscle cells

pass across fibres at irregular intervals
attaches cells and spreads electricity

20

what are the layers of the epicardium

mesothelium
basal lamina
fibroelastic connective tissue and adipose (coronary vessels embedded in)

21

what is the pericardium

fibrous -> tough firbrocollagenous connective tissue
serous -> mesothelium, basal lamina, connective tissue (parietal and visceral)

22

what is contained in the cavity

fluid for lubrication

23

what is the fibrous skeleton

thick bands of fibrous connective tissue around the hart valves, between atria and ventricles

24

what are the layers of heart valves

endothelial
basal lamina
collagen and elastic fibres
core of dense connective tissue (lamina fibrosa continuous w/ skeleton)
no blood supply

25

what are the leaflets anchored to and by

the papillary muscles by the chordae tendonae continuous w/ lamina fibrosa

26

what are the pacemaker cells.

smaller than cardiac contractile
typically histologically pale
few myofibrils, little glycogen no t-tubule system

27

what are the purkinje fibres and where are they

beneath the endocardium of ventricles
larger than cardiac muscles cells
subendocardial layer pale histologically

28

lymph vessels are thin and have no pump so how does it move?

smooth muscle
hydrostatic pressure
compression in vessel by movement
valves