Histology Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal > Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology Deck (62)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the four major layers of the digestive tract?

- mucosa
- submucosa
- muscularis externa
- serosa or adventitia

2

What is mucosa made of?

epithelium, lamina propria (connective tissue), basal lamina, muscularis mucosae

3

What is the submucosa made of?

loose connective tissue

4

What is the muscularis externa?

- circular smooth muscle
- longitudinal smooth muscle

5

What is the outer layer made of?

Connective tissue

6

Name the two parts of the oral cavity that both have the same cell lining

oropharynx & larngopharynx - non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium

7

Name the cells lining the nasopharynx & nasal pharynx

respiratory epithelium

8

How can the tongue be divided?

anterior 2/3 posterior 1/3

9

What cells line the anterior 2/3?

stratified epithelium
thin on ventral
thick on dorsal with papillae (tastebuds)

10

What cells line the posterior 1/3?

smooth stratified squamous epithelium with only circumvallate papillae

11

The pharynx is made of what?

stratified squamous epithelium & a ring of lymphoid tissue

12

What is the lymphoid tissue made of?

Pallitine, lingual, tubual & pharyngeal (adenoids) tonsils

13

What is the oesophagus made of?

stratified squamous epithelium

14

Describe the muscle transition of the oesophagus

upper third - skeletal (voluntary)
middle third - transition skeletal & smooth
lower third - smooth muscle

15

What is the distinct aspect of the oesophagus?

GLANDS IN THE SUBMUCOSA

16

What do the oesophageal glands do?

excrete mucous to lubricate the oesophagus

17

What represents the junction between the oesophagus and the stomach?

gastro-oesophageal junction

18

At the gastro-oesophageal what is the cell change?

stratified squamous - simple columnar

19

In addition to simple columnar what can be found in the stomach?

gastric pits & gastric glands

20

What is a gastric gland made of?

- isthmus (parietal & stem cells)
- neck (parietal & mucosa)
- fundus base (chief cells)

21

State the function of chief & parietal cells

chief - secrete enzymes
parietal - secrete hydrochloric acid

22

What separates the stomach and the small intestine?

gastro-duodenal junction containing the pyloric sphincter

23

Describe the structure of the small intestine

villi & crypts of lieberkuhn

24

Describe the duodenum

Brunner's glands - release alkaline mucous to neutralise chyme

25

Describe the jejunum

tall villi on plicae circularis

26

Describe the ileum

short villi & lots of lymphoid tissue (GALT) which forms peyer's patches

27

State five cells found in the small intestine

- enterocytes - absorptive
- goblet cells - produces mucin
- Paneth cells - defence
- enteroendocrine cells - produce hormones
- stem cells - replenish epithelium

28

What is the large intestine made of?

Colonic epithelium which contains abortive and goblet cells arranged in crypts

29

What is the function of the absorptive cells?

Remove salt and water

30

What is the function of goblet cells?

Produce mucous for lubrication of colon