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1

What are the different types of muscle? Where can you find each of them? 

- Visceral (smooth) muscle = arterial wall, wall of intestines, airways of lungs

- Voluntary (skeletal) muscle = skeletal muscles, larynx, diaphragm

- Cardiac muscle = heart, base of great vessels

- Other contractile cells = pericytes, myo-fibroblasts, myo-epithelial cells

2

How are skeletal muscle cells formed?

Formed by the fusion of primitive cells in the developing embryo called myoblasts

3

What do myoblasts fuse to form? What do sarcomeres form? What are cytoplasms filled with? What do groups of muscle fibres form? What are fascicles of muscle fibres held together to form?

- Multi-celled syncytium

- Sarcomeres joined end to end to form myofibrils (multiple myofibrils within each skeletal muscle cell)

- Cytoplasm filled with myofibrils to form muscle fibre

- Muscle fibres clumped together to form fascicles

- Fascicles held together to form muscles

4

What are the connective tissues of skeletal muscle?

- Endomycium

- Perimycium

- Epimycium

5

Diagram of individual myoblasts forming an individual muscle fibre.

Individual muscle fibres are multi-nucleated

6

What does a skeletal muscle fibre/cell contain in its cell membrane?

- Cell membrane (sarcolemma)

- Nuclei

- Contractile proteins

- Mitochondria

- Endoplasmic reticulum (sarcoplasmic reticulum)

- Glycogen-rich cytoplasm (glycogen-rich sarcoplasm)

7

Is skeletal muscle voluntary or involuntary? Is it striated? Does it have a single nucleus? Is it branching?

- Voluntary

- Elongated fibres with a striated cytoplasm

- Multinucleate

- Nuclei at edges

- Non-branching

8

Diagram of striations under different stains.

9

Why is skeletal muscle striated?

Myofibrils are in register

10

What are the two types of skeletal muscle fibres? Are they distinguishable on H+E stain? 

- Type 1 = rich in fibrillar ATPase, slow twitch

- Type 2 = rich in fibrillar ATPase, fast twitch

11

How do muscles detect stretch and tension? What are these contained within?

- Muscle spindles

- Contained within a fibrocollagenous capsule

- Intrafusal muscle fibres (wrapped around by gamma efferent nerves)

- Detect stretch and tension 

12

Diagram of skeletal muscle connective tissue.

13

How is skeletal muscle connected to bone? 

- Sharpey's fibres

- Bundles of collagen linking epimysium to periosteum

- Attach muscle to bone over a wide area, e.g. rotator cuff muscles attached to scapula

14

How is skeletal muscle connected to bone over a short area?

- Tendons

- Connect muscle to bone

- Parallel bundles of collagen with intervening fibroblasts

- Attach muscle to bone over a small area, e.g. rotator cuff muscles attached to humerus

15

E

16

A

17

B

18

B

19

A

20

C

21

D

22

A

23

D

24

A

25

E

26

B

27

What are the cells of bone? What makes up the extracellular matrix of bone?

- Cells:

- osteoprogenitor cells

- osteoblasts

- osteocytes

- osteoclasts

- Extracellular matrix:

- collagen

- calcium hydroxyapatite

28

Where are osteoblasts and osteocytes derived from? What do osteoblasts secrete? What are osteocytes? How are osteoblasts connected to their neighbours?

- Derived from osteoprogenitor cells

- Osteoblasts secrete osteoid

- Osteocytes = osteoblasts that have become trapped in their own matrix

- Connect to surrounding cells via canaliculi

29

What are osteoclasts? What are they derived from? What is their function? What is the activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts coordinated by? 

- Multinucleate cells

- Derived from monocytes

- Absorb bone - sit in Howship's lacunae

- RANK-L

30

How can describe the different types of bone?

- By origin:

- Primary (woven)

- Secondary (lamellar)

- By mode of formation:

- Membranous

- Endochondrial

- By gross appearance: 

- Spongy/cancellous

- Compact

- Osteons

- Appositional