Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histology of the Female Reproductive Tract Deck (45)
1

What is a eukaryotic cell

A cell with a true nucleus

2

Where are the follicles in the ovary

The cortex

3

What are the various parts of the ovary that we need to know

Superior fibrous cortex covered by epithelium
Medulla
Cortex
Hilum

4

What is important about the medulla

It is highly vascular
It contains connective tissue and nerves, lymph etc but no FOLLICLES

5

What is the hilum

It is the attachment of the broad ligament to the ovary, formed by the stroma of the medulla.

A group of helicine arteries enter the ovary via the hilum from the broad ligament and supply blood to the organ.

6

Where do helicine arteries branch from

the uterine arteries

7

What epithelium lines the ovary

Simple cuboidal

8

What are oogonia?

In early embryonic development (~week 6) germ cells from the yolk sac invade the ovaries and proliferate by mitosis to form oogonia. These oogonia will go on to matur to oocytes.

9

How do oogonia mature to oocytes

via meiosis

10

What is oogenesis

The development of oocytes, the female germ cells, from oogonia.

11

What is folliculogenesis

The growth of the follicle, which consists of the oocyte and any associated support cells

12

What is atresia

Loss of oogonia and oocytes by an apoptosis based process. The cell is resorbed following cell death.

13

What is the name of the follicle when it is finished maturing

Graffian follicle

14

What are the phases of follicular development

Primordial
Primary
Growing primary
Pre antral ---- these are all the Pre antral phases

Early antral
Graafian-----these are the antral phases

At this point the follicle is about 20mm

15

What happens to the oocyte if it fails to associate with pregranulosa cells

It will die

16

What type of cells are the pregranulosa cells

Initially they are squamous but if the follicle enters the growth phase they will become cuboidal

17

What defines the primary follicles

the cuboidal granulosa cells - zona granulosa

18

When are primary follicles present in the ovaries

from birth until puberty

19

What parts of the follicle begin to form around the primary follicle as it develops

The theca (interna and externa)
The zona pellucida

20

What secretes oestrogen precursors

theca interna

21

What converts the oestrogen precusors to oestrogen

granulosa cells

22

What is the antrum

A space filled with follicular fluid that forms and enlarges in the granulosa layer

23

What cells are present around the zona pellucida

cumulus cells or corona radiata

24

Explain what happens to the oocyte in the largest graafian follicle before ovulation

- it will complete meiosis 1 to produce one cell called the secondary oocyte
-this will enter the second phase of meiosis but stop at metaphase II
- it will complete full meiosis to become a fully mature oocyte after it has been release (ovulation) and fertilised by sperm

25

What happens to the follicle after ovulation

It becomes a corpus luteum

26

What does the corpus luteum secrete

Progesterone (and oestrogens)

27

What does P and Oest do

Prepares the uterus for implantation

28

What does the corpus luteum become of it does not implant ie it is not fertilised

the corpus albicans

29

What happens if implantation occurs

The placenta secretes HCG which prevents the degeneration of the corpus luteum and maintains progesterone levels (maintaining the pregnancy)

30

Where does fertilization usually occur

In the ampulla of the fallopian tubes

31

What is the epithelium in the ampulla

folded mucosa
simple columnar epithelium
ciliated
secretory cells
surrounded by smooth muscle (2 layers)

32

what is the difference between the lining of the isthmus and the ampulla

less ciliate cells
mostly secretory
(three layers of smooth muscle)

33

What are the layers of the uterus?

Endometrium (inner secretoy mucosa)
Myometrium (3 layers of smooth muscle)
Perimetrium (loose connective tissue covered by a mesothelium)

34

What is the endometrium divided into

the stratum functionalis- undergoes monthly growth, degeneration and loss
the stratum basalis -reserve tissues that regenerate the functionalis

35

What happens to the uterus during the proliferative phase

The glands stroma and vasculature grow and this increases the thickness of the endometrium

36

What is the epithelium that lines the glands in the uterus

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

37

What causes the stroma in the uterus to proliferate

oestrogen

38

What happens to the glands in the uterus during the secretery phase

they become coiled and secrete glycogen

39

What is the epithelium of the cervix

stratified squamous epithelium on its vaginal surface
transitions to mucous secreting simple columnar epithelium,

40

Where does cervical cancer most frequently occur

the transitions zone

41

What is the difference between cervical secretions from the endocervical glands in the prolifeative phase vs the luteal phase

Proliferative = thin and wtery
Luteal phase = thick and viscous

42

What are the four layers of the vagina

Non keratinuzed stratified squamous epithelium.
lamina propria
fibromuscular layer
Adventitia

43

How does the vagina prevent pathogenic bacterial growth

commensal bacteria metabolise glycogen to lactic acid - pathogenic bacteria cannot grow in acidic environment well

44

how is the vagina lubricated

by mucous from the cervical glans and fluid from the vessles of the lamina propria
no glands in the wall of the vagina

45

At what level does the keratinized epithelium of the vagina become non keratinized stratifies squamous epithelium

the hymen