Flashcards in Historical Developments in Epidemiology Deck (31):
The father of Western Medicine. Defined epidemic, endemic, and pandemic.
The father of Epidemiology. Isolated the cholera pump in London.
The father of vaccination. Used cowpox to immunize against smallpox.
Promoted handwashing among obstetricians in clinical and surgical settings and greatly reduced mother and infant mortality due to iatrogenic infections following parturition.
Observation should drive the study of the course of disease. Described and distinguished different diseases including some psychological maladies. Advanced controversial remedies such as exercise, fresh air, and a healthy diet (Rejected by the medical establishment).
Applied experimental study methods to identify citrus fruits as effective remedies for treating scurvy. Also made clinical observations, used experimental design, asked classical epidemiological questions, and considered sources of causation.
Farmer / dairyman that first noticed that milkmaids didn’t get smallpox. So, he exposed his wife and children to cowpox. Variolation → The Chinese had long observed that weaker strains of smallpox were protective against more aggressive strains.
The father of Pasteurization. Identified rabies as zoonotic. Discovered a vaccine for anthrax.
Worked with Pasteur to establish germ theory. Used photographs to take the first pictures of microbes.
Used the 'Bills of Mortality' to systematically record age, sex, who died, of what, when, and where. Developed the theory of life expectancy. Divided disease into acute and chronic categories.
Extended the use of vital statistics. Predicted that many diseases may have multifactorial etiologies.
Father of occupational / environmental health. Observed diseases among workers generally arise from one of two causes. Either, harmful materials (E.g. noxious vapors or very fine particles that could be inhaled), or certain violent or irregular motions and unnatural positions placing strain on the body.
Typhoid Mary --> Irish cook that was an asymptomatic carrier of typhoid. She would not stop cooking for others and was isolated to an island for the rest of her life. Taught PH officials the importance of tracking carriers.
Focus on dietary supplements in disease prevention. Eliminated beriberi disease from the Japanese navy by adding veggies, meat, and fish to their diet.
Remember Kwashiorkor disease (Malnutrition-related edema).
Published the first report on sanitation and PH problems. Established state and local boards of health in collection and analytics of vital statistics.
Worked with morbidity statistics (As opposed to mortality statistics). Helped develop reports and connection between hospital and clinical records. Illness surveys and incidence / prevalence rates.
Doll & Hill
Define an experimental study and give an example.
James Lind conducted an experimental study
Define a descriptive correlation study and a case-control study and give an example of an individual that used both.
John Snow performed a descriptive correlation study and a case-control study
Define a prospective cohort design and give an example involving heart health.
The Framingham Heart Study involved a prospective cohort design. It was a study regarding diet and exercise (And other lifestyle choices as risk factors) on heart disease.
Define a case-control study design and give an example.
Wynder and Grahm and also Doll & Hill conducted case-control studies
Define a prospective cohort study and give an example.
Doll & Hill performed a prospective cohort study
How do you stop an epidemic?
Remove, interfere with, alter, or change one of the elements of the epidemiology triangle.
Exposure to a lesser strain of disease can be protective against a stronger strain due to immune system activation. (Seen centuries ago by the Chinese)
A limitation of descriptive studies is...
An inability to control for confounding variables.
A nurse during the Crimean War that instituted hygienic changes and improved overall treatment of hospital patients.
What are the different types of carriers?
What vitamins have been linked to specific diseases?
Used a case-control study to study breast cancer. Found that breastfeeding / child rearing are protective against breast cancer. Discovered that certain genetic predispositions increase cancer risk.
Occupational work and toxicology work.