Flashcards in Historical Overview (Exam 1) Deck (32):
What did people initially believe caused abnormal behavior (human suffering)?
evil spirits, spiritual possession, supernatural
get rid of evil spirits by drilling holes into the skull to let spirits out
believed that when humors/fluids were out of balance then problems developed (Hippocrates extended by Galen) ex: black bile, phlegm, etc.
What was believed that influenced the humors?
thought that emotional stress could influence humors and behaviors
mental illness (hysterical behavior) thought to be caused by roaming uterus (hysterikos)
-common in female virgins and widows
-mental distress caused by biological event
mental disorder that was actually advanced stages of syphilis
-brain deteriorates by bacterial infection -> loses function
-biologically caused mental illness
What treatments came from a somatogenic approach?
-blood letting, leeching
-psychosurgery (lobotomy)- cut critical connections in brain
-use of prescription medications
psychogenic causes: dualistic beliefs
separation between mind and body
Galen and Melancholy people belief
-when humors/fluids were out of balance then problems developed
-emotional stress could influence humors -> behaviors
What treatments came from early psychogenic causes?
-problems with morality, sin, choice
-moral causes of problems -> moral refining
-filled with lepers and poor
-no treatment given
-inmates were locked and chained up
Later development of psychological interventions
ship of fools (move them from port to port)
What happened during the reform movement for the treatment of mentally ill?
changed the treatment of mentally ill
-when chains were removed = positive benefit for sufferers
-used country home setting for the mentally ill and found that they functioned better
-Father of American Psychiatry
-Advanced the humane treatment of mentally ill
-provided hospital treatment with social activities and teaching social skills
-pioneered human treatment in US
-helped lobby for and est. new and humane hospitals for the mentally disturbed
What do Pinel, Quakers, Benjamin Rush, and Dorthea Dix have in common?
all contributed to the change in treatment to mentally ill patients
Why were the Pinel, Quakers, Benjamin Rush, and Dorthea Dix important in the history of treatment?
all helped reshape how we treat mentally ill patients
How does the zeitgeist figure into this?
The way we treat mentally ill patients is not static and is always changing
How did a zeitgeist contribute to these events?
Showed that our perception of how we treat mentally ill patients changes
History of treatment: insulin shock
putting patients into an insulin coma
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
-giving patients enough shock to the head to cause convulsions
-convulsions were believed to help the patient
-based on observations that epileptics were not also schizophrenic
-drill holes in skull to cut critical connections in the brain
Why was the advent of neuroleptic meds in the 1950s important?
-they found that drugs helped control psychotic symptoms
-massive # of people allowed to leave hospitals/asylums
-sometimes drugged into unconsciousness
talking to a professional about your mental health
What is the dominant intervention for treatment?
What is the main distinction between psychiatrists and psychologists?
psychiatrists can prescribe medications
-med school training
-psychiatry is a specialization
-trained entirely in psych w/specialization in clinical psych
-specializations inside of psych and clinical psych (child, adult, depression, eating disorders)
-most have psychological orientation
PhD -> licensed psychologists