Historical Overview (Exam 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Historical Overview (Exam 1) Deck (32):
1

What did people initially believe caused abnormal behavior (human suffering)?

evil spirits, spiritual possession, supernatural

2

trephining

get rid of evil spirits by drilling holes into the skull to let spirits out

3

somatogenic causes

believed that when humors/fluids were out of balance then problems developed (Hippocrates extended by Galen) ex: black bile, phlegm, etc.

4

What was believed that influenced the humors?

thought that emotional stress could influence humors and behaviors

5

hysteria

mental illness (hysterical behavior) thought to be caused by roaming uterus (hysterikos)
-common in female virgins and widows
-mental distress caused by biological event

6

general paresis

mental disorder that was actually advanced stages of syphilis
-brain deteriorates by bacterial infection -> loses function
-biologically caused mental illness

7

What treatments came from a somatogenic approach?

-blood letting, leeching
-psychosurgery (lobotomy)- cut critical connections in brain
-use of prescription medications

8

psychogenic causes: dualistic beliefs

separation between mind and body

9

Galen and Melancholy people belief

-when humors/fluids were out of balance then problems developed
-emotional stress could influence humors -> behaviors

10

What treatments came from early psychogenic causes?

-problems with morality, sin, choice
-moral causes of problems -> moral refining
-moral therapy

11

mental asylums

-filled with lepers and poor
-no treatment given
-inmates were locked and chained up

12

Later development of psychological interventions

ship of fools (move them from port to port)

13

What happened during the reform movement for the treatment of mentally ill?

changed the treatment of mentally ill

14

Pinel

-France
-when chains were removed = positive benefit for sufferers

15

Quakers

-England
-used country home setting for the mentally ill and found that they functioned better

16

Benjamin Rush

-Father of American Psychiatry
-Advanced the humane treatment of mentally ill
-provided hospital treatment with social activities and teaching social skills

17

Dorthea Dix

-pioneered human treatment in US
-helped lobby for and est. new and humane hospitals for the mentally disturbed

18

What do Pinel, Quakers, Benjamin Rush, and Dorthea Dix have in common?

all contributed to the change in treatment to mentally ill patients

19

Why were the Pinel, Quakers, Benjamin Rush, and Dorthea Dix important in the history of treatment?

all helped reshape how we treat mentally ill patients

20

How does the zeitgeist figure into this?

The way we treat mentally ill patients is not static and is always changing

21

How did a zeitgeist contribute to these events?

Showed that our perception of how we treat mentally ill patients changes

22

History of treatment: insulin shock

putting patients into an insulin coma

23

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

-giving patients enough shock to the head to cause convulsions
-convulsions were believed to help the patient
-based on observations that epileptics were not also schizophrenic

24

lobotomies

-drill holes in skull to cut critical connections in the brain

25

Why was the advent of neuroleptic meds in the 1950s important?

-they found that drugs helped control psychotic symptoms
-massive # of people allowed to leave hospitals/asylums
-sometimes drugged into unconsciousness

26

psychotherapy

talking to a professional about your mental health

27

What is the dominant intervention for treatment?

medications

28

What is the main distinction between psychiatrists and psychologists?

psychiatrists can prescribe medications

29

psychiatrists (MDs)

-prescribe medication
-med school training
-psychiatry is a specialization
-biological orientation

30

psychologists (PhDs)

-trained entirely in psych w/specialization in clinical psych

-specializations inside of psych and clinical psych (child, adult, depression, eating disorders)

-most have psychological orientation

31

PhD -> licensed psychologists

-researcher
-academic
-admin/program evaluation
-practitioner

32

Masters > MFT or LCSW

-practitioner (delivery of psychological services)
-psychotherapist (psychotherapy or case management)