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Flashcards in HISTORY Deck (54):
1

HISTORY

- extends from philosophy to current thought
- debates regarding nature of existence and the mind entangled philosophers

2

Socrates (BCE)

- OG philosoper mentor who pondered the abstract ideas of truth, beauty and justice

3

Plato (BCE)

- Socrates pupil
- physical world is not all that can be known
- presence of universal forms and innate knowledge
- abstract and unsystematic

4

Aristole (BCE)

- Plato's pupil
- world's 1st professor
- order and logic
- truth is found in the physical world

5

Middle ages (500-1600)

- 2 major changes
-undrstanding mysterious worlds suddenly became question for the church
- then, during mordern world philsophy was reclaimed by scholars

6

Scientific revolution (1600-1700)

- created the world we know today
- world is not center of universe, man is mere part of machine and not operator

7

Rene Descartes (SR)

" I think therefore I am"
-truths about reason and deduction
- dualism (mind body problem)

8

Dualism

- Descartes
- mind body problem (dualism) that mind is nonphysical substance that is separate from body

9

John Locke (SR)

- man's brain is a tabula rasa (blank slate) when entering the world
- we know we comes from experience
- knowledge is not innate

10

Thomas Hobbes (SR)

- humans are machines and sense-perception was all that could be known
- suggest science could be formed to explain people

11

Enlightment (1700-1800)

- most were sold on science and reason but many held onto metaphysics
- undrstanding mind and existence was most important

12

Immanuel Kant

- countred Locke that mind is active and not passive

13

The brink of psychology (1800-1900)

- study of mind was pressing issue for philosophers and psychologists

14

Anton Mesmer (Psyc)

- creator of popular science
- believed healing of physical ailments came from manipulation of people's bodily fluids
- thought animal magnetism was responsible for patient recovery

15

Mesmerism

- Mesmer technique of mind control (hypnotim)

16

Franz Josheph Gall (Psyc)

- ideas from physiology and philosophy to create phrenology
- saw features of skull to be indicators of personality

17

Phrenology

- idea that nature of a person could be know by examining shape and contour of skull

18

Spurzheim (Psyc)

- carried on Gall's work even when scientist proved his theory to be incorect

19

Darwin (Psyc)

- wrote orgin of species and the descent of man
- made evolution a scientifically sound principle by positing natural selection as driving force

20

Sir Francis Galton (Psyc)

- traveled and made important random contributions to psychology
- 1st used in statistics and created correlation coefficient
- used Darwin principles to promote eugenics

21

Eugenics

- plan for selective human breeding in order to strengthen the species

22

Gustav Fechner (Psyc)

- founding of experimental psychology because of "elements of psychophysics"
- 1st systematic psychology experiement with mathematical consclusions
- when previously when it was tought that mind could not be studied empirically

23

Johannes Muller (Psyc)

- physioloist who stated that existence of "specific nerve energeis"

24

wilhem Wundt (Psyc)

- student of muller
- best known as found of psychology for finding 1st official laboratory for psychology and began 1st psychology journal
- idea were forerunners of Tichener's and attempted to study and analyze consciousness

25

Herbert Spencer (Psyc)

- father of psychology of adaptation and sociology
- used Lamarckian evolution (characteristics acquired during life can be passed down) to undrstand ppl
- ppl are elevated via bigger associations they can make in life

26

William James (Psyc)

- father of experimental psychology
- combning field of physiology nd philosophy
- inspired writing of psychology by writing about mind's stream of consciousness and functionalist ideas vs. structuralist ideas of discreete conscious elements

27

Hermmann von Helmholtz (Psyc)

- studied sensation
- esp. hearing and vision
- founder of modern perception research

28

Stanley Hall (Psyc)

- recieved first phd from Harvard
- coined the term adolecence and started the "american journal of psychology" and founded the APA

29

John Dewey (Psyc)

- Americans most influential philosophers
- best known for work in reflex arc

30

Reflex arc

- Dewey
- denied animals respond to environment through disjointed stimulus and response chains
- said animas are adapting to environment rather than processing isolated stimuli
- work was foundation for functionalism

31

Functionalism

- drawn from Darwin, functionalism examined adaptive nature of mind and body through obersvation

32

James Cattell (Psyc)

- opened psycgology laboratories at U of Pennslyvania and Columbia
- thought psychology should be more scientific than Wundt did

33

Dorothea Lynde Dix (Psyc)

- spearhead 19th century movement to provide better care for mentally ill through hospitalization

34

Pavlov (1900+)

- winner of Nobel Prize for work on digestion
- accident disovery of behavioural concept classical conditioning

35

Watson (1900+)

- expanded ideas of Pavlolv by finding school of beahviouralism
- studied stimulus-response chains, observable behaviours
- saw humans as specieis ready to be trained by environment

36

Nature vs. nurture

- AKA evolutionary psychology vs. social contructionism
- whether psychological phnomena are result of genetics of enviornment
- oldest debate in psychology

37

Throndike

- law of effect
- precursor of operant conditioning

38

Skinner

- behaviourist who studied ideas of throndike and Watson
- Skinner box lead to principles of operant conditionign

39

Wertheimer, Kohler, and Koffka

- forged school Gestalt psychology in 1900 to study mind and experience in distinct parts
- in perception the whole is greater than the sum of its parts

40

Frued

- most important figures in clincial, abnormal, peronality psychology
- 3 part structure of mind
- importance on unconscious motivations
- began psychoanlysis
- several famous writings

41

Adler

- created own individual psychology when broke free from Freud
- motivated by inferiority
- 4 type personality (choleric, phylegmatic, melancholic, snaguine)

42

Jung

- Frued's student
- Broke from frued and place empahsis away from sec drive making analytic psychology
- metaphysical and mythological components e.g. collective uncionscious and archetypes

43

Piaget

- developmental psychology work in cognitive development of children

44

Clark Hull

- mechanistic behavioural ideas that explained motivation as performance = drive x habit
- later modified by Kenneth Spence

45

Edward Tolman

- behaviourist who valued beahviour and cognition
- theory of purposive behaviour that learning is acquired thourhg meaningful behaviour (signed learning)
- rats formed cognitive maps vs. just blindly moving
-Expectancy-value theory (performance = expectation x value)

46

Clinical psychology

- emerged after WW2 and changed psychology to more practical field
- people wanted treatment and research was transfered into practical techniques

47

Konrad Lorenz

- founder of ethology famous for imprinting in ducklings

48

Carl Rogers

- famous for creation of client centerd therapy
- client directs course of therapy and recieves unconditional psotivie regard
- first to record therapy sessions for later reference

49

Humanistic

- Therapy using unconditonal positive regard positive views of humans

50

Maslow

- Leader of humanistic psychology
- examined normal of optimal functioning vs. abnormal functioning
- heirarchy of needs and ppl inheritely strive for self-improvement

51

Erik Erikson

- 8 stages of psychosocial develpopment
- noted for completness from infancy to old age
- coined the term identity crisis

52

Victor Frankl

- existential psychology thst people innately seek meaningfulness in their lives and is root of emotional difficultiy
- formed logotherapy

53

Logotherapy

- form of therapy that focuses on a person's will to meaning

54

Beck

- associated with cognitive therapeutic techniques
- problems arise from maladaptive ways of thinking about world
- therapy invovles reformulating illogical cognitiions rather than searching for life-stress cause for these cognition
- Beck Depression Inventory