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Flashcards in History Deck (25):
1

- before the time of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
- each is a student of the other, neglecting the teachings of
their teachers and inserting their own idea
- Nature of Question: SINGLE UNDERLYING
SUBSTANCE (What is the world made up, what are we
here for) — the FOUR ELEMENTS

Pre-Socratics

2

- originally separated
- “born together” in the beginning of the 6th century B.C.
and they both involved a transition from theistic toward a
natural way of thinking about the world

Philosophy and Science

3

more about the knowledge, the
pursuit of knowledge

Western Philosophy

4

focus their discussion on having a
good life, a better life.

Eastern Philosophy

5

First Western Philosophers (or Protoscientists or The Materialists)

Thales
Anaximander
Anaximenes

6

declared the primary substances water
He held that the transformation of fundamental substance is the source of living things’

Thales

7

- Primary substance: Boundless changing, undefined
- “Apeiron”
- He doubted whether any fundamental substance exist in an observable Pure Form

Anaximander

8

Air is central for life-all known living creatures need air to
survive
- Air does: Condensation (solidification of air & Rarefaction
(fire can be made through air)

Anaximenes

9

first philosopher we know of to both emphasize the general process of change and to carefully analyze particular manifestations
“The only thing constant in this world is Change”
Fire is a more fundamental force

Heraclitus

10

viewed the whole cosmos as in a constant state of
change
- metaphor: “You cannot step twice into the same
river; fro fresh waters are ever flowing in upon you”
- he was looking for more than the Primary Substance
— he as looking to explain change
- He wanted to account for transformations

Heraclitean Doctrine of Flux

11

For Heraclitus, the fundemential element of the
universe was Fire, not water.

Disagreement with Thales

12

Believed that all the things take up space, and have measure

Pythagoras

13

all reality is changeless
The universe is one; change and motion is an illusion
All is one and one is All

Parmenides

14

the idea that the world is a unity, unified whole.
All objects, although they seem to separate are, ultimately part of one whole

Monism

15

He attempts to show motion is impossible because all our
movement is the same
He claims that you can never move from one point to
another

Zeno of Elea

16

Reality is changeless but apparent change in objects is not an illusion

Empedocles

17

universe is composed of infinitely small particles
Mind is what gives form
Mind over matter

Anaxagoras

18

When we die, a tiny element of us stays in the world to
continue our existence
- Atoms

The Atomists : Leucippus & Democritus

19

- there is no absolute truth
- By Protagoras and Gorgias
- Generally skeptical views on truth and morality

Sophism

20

rejected all conventional desires
Advocated a life free of all possessions and property as the way to achieve virtue

Cynisism

21

Pyrrhorism Suspend judgment on shit if we really don’t know shit about shit

skepticism

22

the goal in life is to attain happiness in life

Epicurianism

23

pleasure is the most important pursuit
We should always act to maximize pleasure

Hedonism

24

Taught self-control fortitude
Overcoming destructive emotions in order to develop clear
judgment - Inner calm is the ultimate goal

Stoicism

25

there is one God called, “One” - Became a clear influence on Christianity

Neo-platonism