History & Approaches to Psychology Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > History & Approaches to Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in History & Approaches to Psychology Deck (47):
1

Biological Perspective

how the body and brain enable emotions and sensory experiences

2

Evolutionary Perspective

how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes

3

Psychodynamic Perspective

how behavior springs from unconscious drives, dreams, and childhood conflicts

4

Behavioral Perspective

how we learn observable responses (rewards and punishments)

5

Humanistic Perspective

how each individual has great freedom of choice and a large capacity for personal growth (full potential)

6

Cognitive Perspective

how our thought process works and how we store and remember information

7

Social-Cultural Perspective

how thinking and behavior vary across cultures and situations

8

Biopsychosocial Perspective

today's modern approach which tries to combine multiple perspectives (biological, psychological, social-cultural) into one integrated analysis

9

Mary Whiton Calkins

first female president of APA

10

Charles Darwin

-natural selection
-theory of evolution
-evolutionary perspectives

11

Dorothea Dix

reformed mental asylums

12

Sigmund Freud

-psychoanalysis
-unconscious
-dream interpretation
-childhood conflict

13

G. Stanley Hall

-1st US psych lab @ john hopkins
-1st psych journal
-1st president of APA

14

William James

-Functionalism: views the mind as serving the function of helping you adapt to your environment
-1st psych textbook

15

Ivan Pavlov

-classical conditioning
-famous for his work with dogs

16

Jean Piaget

-Famous for work with children
-cognitive development

17

Carl Rogers

humanistic perspective

18

B.F. Skinner

-skinner box: rat pressing lever
-operant conditioning: rewards/punishments

19

Margaret Floy Washburn

1st female Ph.D in psychology

20

Edward Titchener

-structuralism: different structures such as sensation and thoughts make up your consciousness

21

Max Wertheimer

-Gestalt Psychology: whole is greater than the sum of its parts; grouping principles

22

John Locke

-Emiricism: learning from sense experience (preface to Watson's behaviorism)
-Blank Slate: tabula rosa

23

John Watson

-Behaviorism
-Little Albert and the white rat

24

Wilhelm Wundt

-1st psych lab in Leipzig Germany
-introspection: thinking about thinking
-ball hitting platform study

25

Psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes
-originated from the fields of biology and philosophy

26

Biological Psychologist

-examines workings of the brain, nerves, body, and sensation
-explores the links between the brain and the mind

27

Cognitive Psychologist

-studies higher level brain processes like language, thinking, perception, and problem solving/memory

28

Experimental Psychologist

-conducts experimental research studies

29

Basic Research

aims to further psychology's knowledge base

30

Applied Research

aims to solve practical problems

31

Personality Psychologist

-studies how people differ from one another
-examines persistent traits over time, such as extra-version or agreeableness

32

Clinical Psychologist

-help people improve their personal and social functioning and coping challenges

33

Counseling Psychologist

-assess and treat disorders (mental, emotional, and behavioral)

34

Social Psychologist

-studies hoe people influence one another and group behavior

35

Industrial/Organizational Psychologist

-applies psychological concepts and methods to optimize human behavior in workplaces
-examines how to train employees, boost morale, design products, etc.

36

Human Factors Psychology

a sub field that focuses on the interaction of people and machines

37

Forensic Psychologist

-applies psychological principles to criminal investigations
-studies legal issues, criminal minds, insanity

38

Evolutionary Psychologist

-Identifies behavior patterns that are a result of genetic ancestors
-examines adaptations as a result of natural selection even in humans

39

Environmental Psychologist

-studies relationships between people and their physical environment

40

Social-Cultural Psychologist

-investigate similarities and differences in psychological functioning among cultures

41

Sports Psychologist

-studies psychological factors that influence participation in sports
-examines motivation techniques, optimal training methods, visualization, etc.

42

Developmental Psychologist

-studies changing abilities in people as they grow and develop from birth until death

43

Educational Psychologist

-studies influences on learning and teaching and applies strategies to make education more productive
-school psychologists are a more specific sub field that diagnose and treat cognitive, social, or emotional problems in students

44

Psychometric Psychologist

-quantitatively studies the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
-ties into all the previous fields

45

Stability vs. Change

-As an individual grows, does he/she tend to stay the same or change as he/she develops?

46

Diversity vs. Universality

-Do people share more differences or similarities in a population?

47

Nature vs. Nurture

-the longstanding controversy over the contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
- dominant view: "nurture works on what nature endows."