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Flashcards in History & Statistics Deck (23)
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what influence did Magellan have on the medical world in 1521?

He was the main representation of the "post hoc error" term. Which translates to "after this, therefore because of this".
*He was an explorer who claimed to be a God.


What influence did Anton Mesmer France, have on the medical world in 1770's?

He believes that magnetism was an invisible healing fluid. He worked a lot with rods and magnetized water.


What influence did Louis XVI have on the medical world in the late 1700's?

He commissioned to investigate Mesmer's theories. He conducted a blind study, and the results supported the now named placebo effect.


What notions did Hippocrates and Galen apply to the origins of medicine in Europe?

They adopted a Sicilian philosophers ideas, where they use the 4 elements (earth, wind, fire, water), and 2 energy causations (Love&stride and pneuma).


How did Hippocrates and Galen relate each element to a humour in the body? (may reference chart)

Health results when elements are in balance, and that the imbalance causes disease.


Who and how is Al-Razi related to Galen and Hippocrates?

The recognized many errors in Galens views on the treatments of fevers, and diseases. However pointing them out had a very little effect, for traditional theories were supported by post hoc evidence.


how long were Galens opinions on treating diseases?

2000 years, and were applied rigidly in European Medicine.


Briefly describe the origins of medicine in China.

medical beliefs were an extension of ideas originally invented to control warring emperors. Which made them a responsible link for all disasters and diseases.
Many years later, there was an added 3rd body, where the Ch'i now flowed between the cosmos, and the emperor and the body.


What is the inner cannon ( related to Chinese medicine)?

An early medical text, which explains how to diagnose the ils of the body analyzing the Ch'i imbalance. Like the european ideas of correspondences between body parts and elements, the Chinese invented the different correspondences. They also refer to the five moral "phases"


What influence did physician P.C A. Louis have on the medical world?

At the time seemed unharmful, however, it did kill more than it cured. BUT! it was a great efficient method for inflammatory diseases.


Who and how is J.J. jackson of the Massachusetts General hospital relevant?

He doubted Louis stats on bloodletting, and got similar results, after a 9 year experiment.


Back in the day, how did physicians see treatment development?

Most physicians insisted that clinical experience and tradition were all that mattered.


What is the fundamental problem in medicine?

The line of thinking in which " i administered a treatment, sometime after which the patient recovered, therefore my treatment caused the recovery:"


How should we be looking at treating diseases in the modern world of medicine?

We must consider the innate healing mechanisms, as well as the therapy, in regards to recovery results. Also repeat! numbers don't lie, use control groups and attempt trials.


What is the clinical experience?

the treatment of patients one by one in a clinic, or hospital. It is valuable because it suggest what might work.
without individual variability, there would be no need for these trials, thats why comparing groups is vital.


What two influence can account for a recovery from a disease (according to practitioners)

1) Natural healing alone
2) Natural healing +effects of therapy.


What does natural variation allow for in the treatment of a population?

It only allows us to know how a disease behaves on average, and how people respond to medicines on average. You must know the baseline (natural success rate) before you can know if any form of therapy is effective.


what do we know about vibrational medicine?

a meaningless term
we have no evidence for the energies referred to in descriptions of energy-based therapies. it was an idea created to allow one to dismiss good scientific evidence.


What is an example of sight (i saw it work) vs. clinical trial evidence?

the Bach flower remedies (used by vets, 38 different flower teas, blended with brandy, to cure personality disorders.)
The Tellington Touch (1.25 circle motions, to activate cell functions, and speed up healing)


how can we keep an open mind?

We compare groups, and take steps to avoid bias. its important to be aweare of the cynicism and gullibility that people have.


What is RCT?

randomized controlled trial, it is an admission that when done well, can provide accurate knowledge of therapies, but if done incorrectly is can mislead results. *its also expensive af.


what and why is a Funnel plot important?

It can reveal the true effect of a therapy, and it looks like a bell curve, but in scattered plot format. with a large portion of the results falling within the centre. Must be careful though, because publication bias (of the findings) that fail to publish the negative findings, can make an ineffective therapy, appear beneficial.


what are systematic reviews

they take all good-quality studies into account. they are not perfect, but they provide the best overview of the body of evidence associated with medical questioning.