History Notes 1-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in History Notes 1-3 Deck (166):
1

The Christian church in the middle ages

the most important institution, the "glue" of society, and acted as govt

2

The roman catholic church in the middle ages

the "universal church" from Rome

3

The institution of the pope

the papacy

4

The pope in the middle ages

represented God on earth

5

The renaissance

the rebirth of an interest in the classical (Greco-Roman) world, a shift in the way people view themselves > intellectual & artistic

6

Genoa, Italy

where Columbus is from

7

Venice, Italy

merchants on coast

8

Florence, Italy

where it all got started

9

the Medici family

super rich banking family who financially supported the artists of Florence

10

Lorenzo de' Medici

"the magnificent" > shifted focus to the individual

11

the intellectual renaissance

humanism, secularism, individualism, liberal arts

12

humanism

studying classical text rigorously for their value only > vs. trying to put it into a Christian context

13

Francesco Petrarch

1304-1374 > considered the first humanist and got people excited about the original texts and the idea of humanities and liberal arts

14

Leonardo Bruni

historian & one of the first to teach himself Greek > "the careful study of the past enlarges our foresight into contemporary affairs"

15

secularism

worldly

16

individualism

pursuit of individual interests over those of the community

17

Johann Gutenberg

invented the printing press (1450) and prints the bible 1st

18

the printing revolution

bred an educational society > 1450's

19

naturalism

art based in reality

20

Giotto

painter > real people

21

Masaccio

artistic inventor of perspective

22

Leonardo da Vinci

artist, musician, inventor, scientist > painted the virgin & St. Anne

23

Michelangelo

painted ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and sculpted "David", a Greek man

24

"David"

sculpture made from marble of a nude Greek/roman man > the representative of the classical world

25

Raphael

painter > famous portrait "The School of Athens"

26

The School of Athens

a portrait featuring great Greek scientists > Plato and his idea of absolutes vs. Aristotle and his idea of the world.

27

Societal Classes in the Renaissance

upper, middle, lower, serfs

28

Upper Class, 2 types

CLERGY: wealthy educated church officials & NOBILITY: aristocracy

29

Middle class

townspeople

30

Lower

peasants

31

Serfs

from eastern Europe, lower than peasants

32

The state in the renaissance

defined by the central govt > feudalism declining (local govt) > the rise of the new monarchies after 1450

33

The rise of the new monarchies? (When? What was it?)

after 1450 > Became govt of the King and formed the Nation-State

34

nation state

a geographical area

35

nation states have

central govt, common languages, customs, history

36

central govt of the nation states

King & formation of bureaucracy (gov't officials recruited from the middle class)

37

4 nation states

France, Spain, England, Portugal

38

Most powerful Kings in Europe

French Kings (but people eventually revolt in the French revolution)

39

Louis XI

(1461-1483) French man who created the 1st standing army (permanent military establishment), for which he created taxes to feed the army

40

Duke of Burgundy

Helped England against France, so France attacks the Duke and made it a part of France.

41

Nation state that had been around the longest

England

42

War of the Roses

House of Lancaster (winners) (red) vs. House of York (white)

43

King Henry VI

(1422-61) Of England and is insane > Father dies in 1422 so he inherits the throne as a baby at age 1. He is put under REGENCY where another adult is in charge of his education until he becomes of age. As he grows up, he begins to show that he is crazy.

44

Henry VII (Henry Tudor)

(1485-1509) a noble related to Lancaster who leads them to victory. Reestablished respect for the law and order, taxed and fined heavily and creates surplus > Marries Elizabeth YORK and has Henry VIII.

45

Spain

Era of the "Reconquista" happening almost 400 years (Reconquista-taking Spain back from the Moors) > Christians vs. Moors (Muslims) "In the name of Christianity" Before 1000ad, 90% of Spain was Muslim

46

Ferdinand of Argon and Isabella of Castile

got married & continued the Reconquista > the creation of Spain ended in 1492

47

Portugal

The King was absolute over the nobles > because of the Reconquista

48

Russia (Kingdom of Muscovy)

under domination of the Mongols

49

Mongols

from east Asia > had the Russian Prince(s) collect taxes on behalf of the Mongols for a cut until a Prince Ivan III rebels and wins

50

Prince Ivan III

Rebels against the Mongols and wins > the Mongols are ejected > Begins Russia's History

51

"The Prince"

A "how-to" book about the renaissance that says power is most important and rulers shouldn't worry about virtues.

52

Niccolo Machiavelli

Political theorist (Wrote "The Prince") > Says politics and ethics should be kept separated, state is more important than the individual and its better for the people to fear the kings than love them

53

Dates of the early modern era

1500-1750

54

Rise of the west

by the 1700's, most of the globe had been taken over by Europeans

55

Causes of the European exploration

1. Demand for the products of Asia (spice trade) (2) To spread the Christian religion (3) Technological Advances

56

Asian products in demand

Silk, porcelain, spices

57

Spice islands

The east indies

58

spice trade controlled by who?

controlled by the Muslims which angered the Christians

59

The Travels of Marco Polo

book about travels to China, who's purpose was to stir up interest in china

60

Caravel

the fastest ship invented by the Portuguese (leaders in exploration), strong enough to carry cannons

61

when was the compass invented and by who?

1400's by the Portuguese

62

Astrolabe

measures the altitude of sun and stars ��� invented in the middle east

63

prince henry the navigator

1394-1460. Establishes a school for sailors and wants to reach the spice islands

64

Bartholomew Dias

1487. is able to sail around the cape of Good hope and finds the Indian ocean.

65

Vasco de Gama

1498. 1st to reach India by sea, and as a result, Portugal established colonial empire in Asia

66

Malacca

Malaysian state and a fortress. Shortest route

67

Afonso de Albuquerque

1511. Captures the fortress of Malacca and orders the occupants (Muslims) to be slaughtered

68

Macao

Coast of china. Is captured by the Portuguese and they keep it till the 1990's

69

Kanem-Bornu

is the kingdom in the the center & is all powerful. Is a trading empire between N & S

70

Sefuwa Dynasty

is in charge until 1840's and rulers converted to Islam.

71

Idris Alooma

1571-1610. greatest of the African rulers and imports weapons from turkey. Is declared an Islamic state

72

sha'ria law

makes the law of the Koran the official law

73

the Songhai kingdom

in west Africa. Most powerful because the kings are sitting on gold

74

Trans-Saharan trade

the trade routes for gold, ivory, salt and slaves. Takes 50 days via camel caravan

75

Berbers

people of the desert

76

sonni Ali

1468-1528. the emperor of the Songhai kingdom. Against Islam, people worship the king. Askia calls him out

77

askia Mohammad

1493-1528. A devout Muslim takes over the Songhai kingdom after Sonni. Took the pilgrimage to the mecca (2 yr. journey), and wants to make Timbuktu Islamic. Recruits teachers and mathematicians

78

Timbuktu

most racially tolerant city in the 1500's

79

Elmina

Coast of west Africa, where the Portuguese established a factory fort looking for trade but are pushed south to Benin

80

the Oba

leader of Benin and is economically superior. Can open and close markets as he see fits

81

the terms of trade

are set by the Oba and wants to be paid in guns (muskets) and slaves. Portuguese are looking for pepper, beans , ivory, gold, etc.

82

madeira islands

where the prorogue start production of sugar cane and take native Madeira people captive and make them work.

83

gulf of guinea

Sugar Islands. Portuguese move production and slaves from the Madeira islands to here

84

the Atlantic slave trade

shifts again to brazil, but natives flee so they import labor from Africa. 10-15 million slaves. Eventually the slave trade will be run by English

85

olaudah equiano

1745-1797 is kidnapped at 11 years and taken to Barbados, then savanna, the England. Becomes abolitionist and wrote book on the slave trade.

86

middle passage

the journey from Africa to the Americas

87

king affonso

king of Congo, becomes a Christian and recognizes that the slave trade is evil

88

Angola

is seized by the Portuguese until 1975

89

end of the Reconquista

1492. Spain

90

Christopher Columbus

originally from Venice, and the first to reach the Bahamas

91

the west indies

Columbus calls the natives Indians because he believed he was in India

92

amerigo Vespucci

originally from Italy. Took separate voyage in 1499 and names the new world America

93

treaty of tordesillas

1494. the pope gave the west of the new world to Spain and the east to Portugal

94

conquistadors

Spanish king sent conquerors to capture the new world and take natives hostage to work

95

hernan Cortes

1519-1521. Spanish conquistador who captured Mexico from the Aztecs (2yr process). In search of gold

96

Francisco Pizarro

1532. captures the Inca (bigger than the Aztecs)

97

encomienda system

take captives, put them to work on plantations and in mines and tax them

98

Portugal in brazil

interested in brazilwood which produces red dye, and sugarcane

99

voyage of Columbus

1492

100

the Columbian exchange

a process where products, disease, etc. was exchanged b/w continents

101

Alfred Cosby

the guy who came up with the idea of the Columbian exchange as a balanced perspective

102

the Atlantic world / a "zone"

4 continents in contact with each other via Atlantic ocean. N & S Americas, Europe, Africa

103

John Thornton

came up with the idea of the Atlantic world/a zone

104

the protestant reformation

most important religious movement which turns political

105

Dates: Reformation, state building and the wars of religion

1500-1650

106

How was the roman catholic church in crisis?

was so powerful, began to lose touch --> Institutional decay

107

simony

where a rich person could purchase a church office

108

Alexander VI

Renaissance pope 1492-1503, never supposed to be married but has mistresses and illegitimate kids

109

Julius II

Renaissance pope, 1503-1513, the "warrior pope"

110

the Vatican

where popes live

111

Leo X (Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici)

Renaissance pope from 1513-1521. Life: 1475-1521. second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent

112

Christian Humanism

emphasizes the humanity of Jesus & his social teachings...universal human dignity and individual freedom and the primacy of human happiness as essential

113

Desiderius Erasmus

read new testament in Greek�want to get rid of the institution of church and go back to the old Christian days

114

The Education of a Christian Prince

by Erasmus�took on Machiavelli and "The Prince". Says rulers should be guided by ethics ad rooted in Christ's philosophy

115

Martin Luther

Begins the reformation. Is a monastic devoted to catholic church. Wrote 95 points attacking the pope and the issue of indulgences

116

justification by faith

if you believe, you will go to heaven. A person cannot DO anything to get there

117

The issue of indulgences

King Leo offers indulgences for purchase

118

penance

catholic doctrine: after confession, priest assigned something for you to do to "pay" for the sin

119

purgatory

central holding place for soul after death

120

heretic/heresy

teaching things against the works of the church

121

Ninety- Five Thesis

1517. Written by Martin Luther, about indulgences

122

diet of worms

1520. Luther is summoned to Germany and asked to retract statement, but he refuses

123

Luther was protected by who & why?

By the Duke of Saxony --> motive to stimulate local economy by not having to pay tithes to the corrupt church

124

priesthood of the believer

every Christian is a priest and every Christian is equal in the eyes of God

125

freedom on conscience

free to believe as they want - ideas of Luther

126

the Lutheran church

Established by Martin Luther --> protestant, protests to the catholic church

127

established church

the church of the govt --> the Lutheran church becomes official church in some places

128

John Calvin

moves to Geneva after he established Calvinism

129

doctrine of predestination

idea of John Calvin�that God has predetermined the fate of people (heaven or hell)

130

protestant work ethic

laziness is sinful, therefore wealthy people work hard and are blessed. Endorse capitalism and sharing the wealth (but don�t be greedy) -->monks/nuns/Catholicism is sinful

131

Henry VIII

Marries Catherine of Aragon (wife of deceased brother Prince of /wales). She only has a daughter, so he thinks he's being punished. Divorce is not granted, so he starts his own church (of England) and banishes Catherine to a convent

132

Thomas Cranmer

archbishop of Canterbury - grants Henry VIII a divorce after he beheads the first 2 to deny him

133

act of supremacy

1534. a piece of legislation that declared King Henry VIII supreme head of the Church of England

134

church of England

1534. established by Henry VIII. Aka Anglican church, Episcopal church

135

Edward VI

1547-1553. Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. Became king at age 10 when father died. Edward dies at age 16 in 1553

136

Mary I

1553-1558. Daughter of Catherin of Aragon. Becomes queen after Edward VI dies. Is super catholic and plans to marry Peter Phillip II of Spain, but the marriage doesn�t go through and she snapped. Ordered 300 protestants to be burned at the stake. Dies from cholera and is succeeded by Elizabeth

137

results of the reformation

reintroduces principles of the renaissance --> importance of the individual & rejected hierarchal society (protestant reformers voted for church officials)

138

Ignatius of Loyola

a Spaniard and leader of the catholic counter reformation. Started the Jesuits

139

Jesuits

society of Jesus that took vow to spread Catholicism. Favored education and helped the less fortunate --> things that the protestants didn�t do

140

the council of Trent

1545-1563 -stopped selling indulgences & church offices (Catholicism). Believe in salvation by both action and faith. Introduced the index of prohibited books

141

index of prohibited books

censorship of certain books. If caught, would be tortured to "save the soul" by prosecuting the body

142

state building in the 16th century

although new interest in individualism rising, kings are getting more powerful

143

the reign of Charles V

1519-1555. Rules Austria, Spain, and holy roman empire. Member of the Hapsburg family. "warrior emperor". Super rich and powerful

144

Holy roman emperor

Charles V takes over and begins fighting France, protestants in Germany & Lutherans (who are being supported by the Muslim ottomans)

145

House of Valois

French dynasty fighting Charles

146

the peace of Augsburg

1555. End fighting in Germany. Rulers of theses regions can choose the official religion. Charles V divided up his power and went to the monastery to get away from all the fighting

147

Peter Phillip II

Spain. 1555-1598. was originally supposed to marry bloody Mary. Richest in the world. Super catholic so persecutes anyone who is not.

148

Revolt of the Netherlands

happens under Phillip II's reign --> people are converting to Calvinism but he wants the m to stay catholic

149

England under Elizabeth I

1558. protestant sister of bloody Mary. Immediately passes the act of uniformity

150

act of uniformity

1558. reinforced the Book of Common Prayer and made it mandatory to go to church every week

151

book of common prayer

contain the words of structured services of worship

152

the sea dogs

pirates who robbed gold/silver from Spain (Phillip) and sponsored by Elizabeth (England)

153

Sir Francis Drake

leader of the sea dogs

154

defeat of the Spanish armada

1588. Phillip orders invasion of England (Elizabeth), but she has spies so she wins. "God is with us". Power shifts to England

155

the French wars of religion

1562-1589

156

Henry II dies

1559. Killed in jousting match- Catherine de Medici takes over

157

Huguenots

French Calvinists seeking religious freedom, and held secret religious meeting in the early morning. Were attacked by the Duke of Guise, and this started the French wars

158

Catherine de Medici

Queen of France. Regent for 2 sons. orders the Bartholomew day massacre (heugonots to be killed)

159

Henry VI

Son of Catherine de Medici. leader of the Huguenots - win against Spain

160

house of bourbon

Henry IV converts to Catholicism after becoming King because 90% of his people are

161

the edict of nantes

1598. provided religious freedom for Huguenots --> end to religious wars

162

the 30 years war

1618-1648. Bohemia becoming protestant

163

Ferdinand II

1578-1637. Holy roman emperor

164

the defenestration of Prague

1618. The bohemians met with reps of the emperor, didn�t like what was being said, so they pushed the reps out of the window. Emperor retaliates and sets off the 30 yr. war

165

Cardianal Richelieu

leader of France and the intervention (1635). Fights alongside the protestants to help stop the Hapsburgs.

166

peace of Westphalia (1648)

1648. French and protestants win the war