History Notes 4-5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in History Notes 4-5 Deck (80):
1

Osman I

1280-1326. origin of the name – ottoman turks

2

anatolia (Asia Minor)

where the ottoman empire got started

3

Ghazi's

frontier fighters, motivated by Jihad

4

Jihad

“holy war” > attack byzantine christians

5

Orkhan

1326-1360 > the first sultan (emperor) of the O-empire

6

the balkans

Late 130's > conquered by ottomans

7

devshirme

where the ottoman start collecting christian kids and taxing the adults

8

janissaries

special forces of the sultan

9

mehmet

1451-1481. “the conqueror” takes over at age 19

10

the siege of Constantinople

1453. muslims captured and renamed instanbul, turkey “city of islam”

11

suleyman the magnificent

1520-1566 > “the lawgiver” - civil law code. Trying to copy the renaissance- suleymaniye mosque

12

topkapi mosque

2nd largest palace in world

13

the harem

“forbidden” 1000 captured christian women converted to islam. Every woman is supposed to have a boy to be prince with the sultan

14

eunuchs

the only men allowed to be around the women of the harem

15

the “golden road”

the special entrance to the harem the sultan takes every night

16

roxelana

the emperor falls in love and marries her

17

fratricide

chose one of the sons to be prince, and kills the others

18

the safavids

2nd of the muslim empires over persia/iran

19

ottomans empire

1st muslim empire – over turkey

20

millet

administrative units

21

shah ismail

1484-1524> founder of the safavids, member of the shi'its

22

sh'ia, shi'its

group of muslims in iran who believe you should take pilgrimage to mecca

23

sunni's

82% orthodox muslims in turkey

24

muhammed

570-632 > founder of muslim religion

25

shah abbas I

“the great” > creates isfahan as the capital city of persia, known for carpet weaving

26

the mughals

the 3rd of the muslim empires, conquered majority of india

27

babur

1483-1530 > founder of the mughals, believed he's a descendent of the mongols. Turko-afghan

28

akbar

1556-1605 > grandson of babur. Brings hindu into govt & ands taxes – wants to create 1 indian culture – toleration

29

the “divine faith”

where akbar creates a new religion by mixing elements of different religions

30

jahangir

1605-1628 > son of akbar, who poisoned him – is a drunk

31

nur jahan

wife of jahangir who is the real decision maker b/c he is a drunk

32

shah jahan

1628-1658 > emperor interested in architecture > drained treasury and taxed people to build the taj mahal

33

mumtaz mahal

the taj mahal was built in memory of her > wife of shah jahan

34

aurangzeb

1658-1707 > last of mughal rulers. Religious fanatic – forced Hindus to convert to islam, taxes them and attacks their shrines

35

the battle of plassey

1757 – where english defeat french > for india

36

robert clive

british leader who defeated the french at plassey. By 1858, english completely conquered india

37

the english east india company

late 130's > conquered by ottomans

38

wade giles

first writing system of chinese

39

pinyin system

writing system of China after 1980

40

the dynastic cycle of chinese history

effective system of ruling

41

the tributary system

pay tribute to the emperor of china > ambassadors bring gifts of submission so china wont attack

42

kow tow

“bang head” bow for the emperor

43

bureaucracy of china

have to civil service exam to become part of the chinese govt > based on Confucianism

44

confucianism

400 bc. > a gentleman acts with dignity

45

the ming dynasty

1368-1644 > mings replace mongols

46

beijing

capital city of ming dynasty

47

the forbidden city

the largest palace forbidden to regular people

48

portuguese arrival in china

1514 > are restricted to macao b/c they are suspicious of foreigners

49

the ching (qing) dynasty

1644-1911 > Ching means pure, but really the Manchu's are from manchuria, not china

50

Dyarchy system

every govt position on qing dynasty held by both a manchurian and a chinese.

51

Kang-Hsi (kangxi)

emperor for 61 years > cares about the welfare of the people. Contemporary of Louis 14th

52

the sacred edict

teaching os Confucius

53

the port of canton

1699 > first english trading post of china. China doesn’t but from english

54

lord maccartney's mission

1793. trying to get china to lift trading restrictions for the english

55

Japan is located

directly east of manchuria

56

the samurai

japanese warriors serving in feudal wars

57

daimyo

feudal lords of japan

58

shogun

had the real power, emperor was just a figure head

59

shogunate

late 130's > conquered by ottomans

60

The 3 great unifiers of japan

Oda Nubunaga (1568-1582) > Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1582-1598) > Tokugawa Leyashu (1598-1616)

61

Oda Nubunaga

1568-1583 > samurai warrior who begins using guns > starts process of unification

62

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

1582-1598> the bad guy, invades Korea and continues to conquer other samurai

63

Tokugawa Leyashu

1598-1616 > “great peace” most important. Was the regent of the next young emperor > was the shogun

64

isolation begins in japn

1639 > keep foreigners, except for dutch, out

65

deshima island

dutch restricted to here

66

francis xavier

1549 > brings christianity to japan

67

kyushu island

everyone is becoming christian and start destroying japanese shrines, so they get attacked

68

rangaku movement

interest in europe and western technology

69

Korea

directly south of manchuria, managed to stay independent of china

70

yalu river

natural border manchuria and Korea

71

yi sing gye

1392> defeated the ming (chinese army), and founded the Choson (yi) dynasty

72

choson (yo) dynasty

Korea 1392-1910 > establishes capital at seoul, and adopt Confucianism b/c they’re so close to china

73

hangul

1446 – the development of the phonetic alphabet for writing the korean spoken language

74

yangban

nobles who take the civil exam and run the govt and military

75

peasants

like serfs

76

chonmin

“slaves” entertainers and butchers

77

japan invades china by Toyotomi Hideyoshi's orders

1592 & 1597 > 1593 china and Korea come together to counter attack

78

turtle ships

korean wooden ships with iron plates

79

ear mounds

Japanese attack korean civilians and cut off their ears and noses to build religious shrines

80

hermit kingdom

Yi rulers tried to keep Korea isolated from the outside world after japans heinous attacks