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Flashcards in History of Microbiology Deck (71):
1

They suggested that diseases are caused by invisible living creatures

Lucretius and Girolamo Fracastoro

2

Made the earliest observations on bees and weevils

Francesco Stelluti

3

First person to observe and describe microorganisms accurately aka Father of Protozoology and Bacteriology

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

4

He discovered animalcules

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

5

The magnification of Leeuwenhoek's single lens microscope

50-300x

6

Define Spontaneous generation

Life arose from non-living matter

7

He said that simple invertebrates came could arise from spontaneous gen.

Aristotle

8

He demonstrated that maggots do not arise from decaying meat

Francesco redi

9

His results were a serious blow to the long-held belief that large forms of life came from nonlife

Francesco redi

10

He boiled mutton broth and then it became cloudy after pouring it into a flask sealed tightly

John needham

11

He proposed that organic matter possessed a "vital force" that could give rise to life

John needham

12

He improved needham's exp. by heating the broth already placed in a sealed jar and observed that mo growth took in place as long as it remained sealed

Lazzaro spallanzani

13

He proposed that air carried microorganisms might be the reason for the growth of organisms present already in the medium and concluded that these probably entered needham's solution after it is boiled

Lazzaro spallanzani

14

Showed the importance of oxygen to life

Laurent lavoisier

15

Living cells can only arise from preexisiting living cells

Biogenesis

16

Father of modern pathology

Rudolf virchow

17

He challenged the concept of biogenesis

Rudolf virchow

18

He observed no growth occured in the flask containing nutrient soln after ff air to pass through a red hot tube

Theodore schwann

19

No growth occured after allowing air to pass thru sterile cotton wool placed in a flask of heat sterilized medium

Goerg friedrich and Theodore von Dusch

20

He resolved the issue of spontaneous gen

Louis pasteur

21

Stated that microorganisms are present in air and can contaminate sterile cotton, however, the air itself doesn't create microbes

Louis pasteur

22

He showed that microorganisms can also be present in nonliving matter

Louis pasteur

23

He stated that microbial life can be destroyed by heat

Louis pasteur

24

A tech. To prevent contaminationby unwanted microorganisms

Aseptic tech.

25

He provided evidence that microorganisms cant originate from mystical forces present in nonliving materials

Louis pasteur

26

He demonstrated that no matter how long flasks are boiled, they always produce certain growth (heat resistant bacterial spores)

Ferdinan cohn

27

Form of sterilization for 3 consecutive days

Tyndallization

28

He showed that dust carry germs which contaminate sterile broth

John tyndall

29

He stated that yeast cells were responsible for the conversion of sugar to alcohol and fermentation was not due to microorganisms but to a chemical instability that converted sugars to alcohol

Theodore schwann

30

Yeast converts sugar to alcohol in the absence of air

Fermentation

31

These causes the souring and spoilage of wine

Bacteria

32

In the presence of air, bacteria converts alcohol to _________

Vinegar or acetic acid

33

Heating the wine just enough to kill the bacteria snd is proposed by Pasteur

Pasteurization

34

Give three contributions of pasteur to science

1. Disproved theory of spontaneous gen. 2. Developed vaccines against anthrax (1881) and rabies (1885). 3. He improved the wine industry (theory of fermentation)

35

He created porcelain bacterial filter and developed anthrax vaccine together with pasteur

Charles chamberland

36

He is the savior of mothers

Ignatz semmelweis

37

Demonstrated routine handwashing to prevent spread of diseases

Ignatz semmelweis

38

Father of modern surgery

Joseph lister

39

He developed the antiseptic system of surgery

Joseph lister

40

He introduced handwashing to british surgery and the use of phenol as antimicrobial agent for surgical wound dressing

Joseph lister

41

He introduced the use of phenol for wound dressing and spraying of phenol over the surgical area

Joseph lister

42

It is based on the concept that microorganism might cause disease

Germ theory of disease

43

He showed the first proof that bacteria causes disease

Robert Koch

44

He discovered Bacillus anthracis in 1876-1877

Roberth koch

45

Causative agent of anthrax

Bacillus anthracis

46

He was the first to cultivate bacteria on boiled potato, gelatin, meat extracts and protein

Robert koch

47

He developed culture media for observing growth of bacteria isolated from human body

Robert koch

48

Give the first koch's postulate/germ theory of disease

The microorganism should be present in every case of the disease but is absent in a healthy host

49

Give the second koch's postulate/germ theory of disease

The suspected microorganism must be isolated from a diseased host and grown in a pure culture

50

Give the third koch's postulate/germ theory of disease

The same disease must be present when the isolated microorganism is inoculated into a healthy host

51

Give the fourth koch's postulate/germ theory of disease

The same organism must be isolated again from the diseased host

52

She suggested the use of agar as solidifying agent

Fannie Hesse

53

He discovered petri dish

Julius Richard Petri

54

They developed the enriehment culture tech. and introduced the use of selective media

Martinus Beijerinck and Sergie Winogradsky

55

He experimented on how people can be protected from small pox

Edward jenner

56

He collected scrapings from cowpox blisters and inoculated healthy volunteer with the cowpox material by scratching the person's arm with pox-contaminated needle

Edward jenner

57

Vacca means?

Cow

58

He used the term vaccine for cultures of avirulent microorganism preventive inoculation

Louis pasteur

59

What is and attenuated culture?

A vaccine

60

He prepared antitoxins for diptheria and tetanus

Emil von Behring

61

He accidentally discovered penicillin

Alexander fleming

62

He discovered the enzyme lysozyme

Alexander flemming

63

Penicillin culture

Penicillium notatum

64

They made the purification process for penicillin

Howard Florey and Ernst Chain

65

He was the first to propose the correct biochemical structure of penicillin

Edward Abraham

66

He discovered Salvarsan for treatment of Syphilis

Paul Ehrlich

67

It is the treatment of disease by using chemical substances

Chemotherapy

68

It also refers to chemical treatment of non infectious disease such as cancer

Chemotherapy

69

Prepared from chemicals in the lab

Synthetic drugs

70

Produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against microorganisms

Antibiotic

71

Is the study of organisms that individually are too small to be seen by the naked eye

Microbiology