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II. HiSTORY

Stories get wilder, and farther from truth
Stories don't match
Civil war in the south is called The War of Northern Aggression
Stories change: new information found, information distorted/Misrepresented, changes in word meaning (Awful in the past is the same word we use today as Awesome) (cute then means smart now) (in church to be dressed modestly meant no jewelry not to be conservative)

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I. Why study history?

A.History is used as a guide for making current decisions
What happened the last time?
B. History is used to justify current activities/belief
Marriage: wasn't always religious
Abortion: church hasn't always banned it
C. There is almost nothing new in psychology
Emotions: Anger, sadness can be broke down into this simple
graph, Not new info but now data to support it!
D. So accurate history is necessary

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What types of history can you talk about?

Dates, only one date to learn!
Date for founding of psych
Famous people (Major part)
History of ideas (Real focus): environment used to be what we though to be the main cause now it's not!

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Influences on historical events

-Societal influences
15 years ago about, the congress voted unanimously to censor a valid study so that it would never be reported...whether there were any negative effects of sex between teens and adults (relationships) results showed: nothing, neutral long term effects..either neutral or positive younger guys with older women

Congress voted to cut funding fir political science, somebody in congress introduced legislation to cut funding on how to prevent drug abuse the reason why he introduced it was cause he was religious and believed only reason people do it is free will...social influences on what is funded and researched

Governor if Florida, should no longer offer anthropology majors because it is not important
People have said the same about Psychology! They are trying to do that..a movement to on,y have psych at a few schools..reflects social necessities! Not just beliefs and experiments affected but our majors!

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The traditional view

1. Collect facts- observe
2. Make up theory- hypothesize
3. Try to prove theory
4. Gradually evolve toward the truth
5. Science is completely logical and objective

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The view of science assumed in this course

1. Theory before facts
Popper- the doctrine of factual relativity
Different theories have different facts depending on theory/beliefs
2. Theories disproven
It's impossible to prove anything!
Reject the null, all you can do!
3. Evolution and revolution
A. Paradigm -> Kuhn
A set of assumptions about the proper topics to study, the proper methods to use and the appropriate ways to explain your finding OR the rules of the game
B. Normal science: the day to day activities that scientists do
Different teachers teach different things because they come from different paradigm
Evolution
Gradual evolution to truth happens with normal science
Paradigm change
Revolution change in how we do psych
Recent revolution into neuroscience
Next our stats will be proven wrong
D. Incommensurability (incompatible)
Two different paradigms are incomparable
Two versions of psych agree with eachother to explain something
E. No necessary movement toward ABSOLUTE truth
What true for one isn't for another
F. Science is not completely rational and objective
Harvard psych made mistakes in research
We get rid of outliers

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Popper

Doctrine of factual relativity

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Kuhn

Paradigm

8

Is psychology a science?

A. Partially depends on determinism
Determinism: the belief that if I know enough about something I can predict what is going to happen
What is determinism?
Psychology is NOT a science because we can't make predictions about what we will do,think, or say
2. Alternatives to determinism
A. Randomness: just happens can't predict it!
P value: chance
P=.05 5% of the time chance will influence results
B. Free will, not science
C. Indeterminism and the idea of reflexivity (Complex)
Molecules and chemicals are simpler
Can't predict people because humans can not explain humans
2. Partially depends on using naturalistic explanations
Not supernatural! People are not mentally ill because of the devil
Catholic Church: rare but exorcisms are still performed
Naturalistic is a more SCIENTIFIC perspective
Neuroscience is the most popular: naturalistic and observes chemicals
3. A problem for psychology- The " Black Box" issue
You can take a watch a party but not your mind. Don't know what's going on inside. Can't look inside mind to figure it out because that would involve killing you!
Behaviorism: nothing inside you influence you
Nobody believes that!
Different versions of psych have different answers for what's inside the black box
Neuroscience is so popular because they think it answers what is inside the black box

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V. Basic conceptual issues in psychology

A. Is there a mind (or a soul) separate from the body
Religious: mind stops but you still have a soul
1. Monism: only one thing, no! There is not a separate mind and body
Materialism: all we have is a body, if you believe in materialism most believe it is the body (Neuroscience)
Idealism: idea that there is no physical world...all you have is your mind! Were part of Gods dream
2. Dualism: both! Mind and body, how do the mind and the body influence each other?
a. Interactionism:each influence each other
b. Epiphenomenalism: body influences your mind, mind is like a biproduct of your body. We think but our thinking does not make our body move. Our brain does the processing. Not our mind but our brain
c. Parallelism: don't influence each other, two trains on parallel tracks

What you do as a psychologist is effected by what you believe?
Materialism: prescribe drugs, physical imbalance
Psych major (want to do therapy) is Interactionism. Believe talk effects brain
Psychiatrist: drugs change brain chemistry but still talking to then will help (Interactionism)

Why wouldn't psychologists believe in Epiphenomenalism? Because that would,d mean that they believe talking won't fix it!
B. How do we acquire knowledge of the world?
1. Nativism: born in (born with knowledge, comes to us)
Most psychologists believe babies come in knowing stuff. Some even believe that we are born with morals
Knowledge of physics, knowledge if morality
Because of evolution!
Know what a dog is: born with it
2.Rationalism: knowledge from logical thinking
Know what dog is: sat and thought about it
3. Empiricism: knowledge comes from your senses
Know what a dog is: see it, felt it, smelt it

Depending on what you believe you will study and explain differently
Nativists: study babies.
Empiricists: don't study babies! They have experience. Spend a lot if time talking about how environment effect it (psych of learning)
rationalists: study those capable of logical thinking, not babies. Cognitive psychology (thinking)

C. Do we have conscious control of our life?
1. Yes, believe in free will
2. No, believe in determinism
Three things make you do what you do
a. environment
b. Our brain (neuroscience)...our neurons make us do what we do
c. Our unconscious mind (Freud) Freudian slip: unconscious mind make you say it!

D. Are people basically rational or irrational
Logical vs. Emotional
Freud: inborn drives
Ellis: rational emotive therapy (people's problems Re because they arnt thinking logically so you argue and talk with them to help them think logically) NOT ON TEST
E. How are humans related to other animals?
If you believe humans are similar to animals then you believe animals are great examples and can be used for studies
Others believe humans are different from animals
F. Are humans inherently good, bad, or neither?
Human nature
Inherently good: humanistic, environmental and society make them bad
Almost none believes this
Inherently bad: psychoanalytic, freud and drive (sex, hurt people, and staying alive)
Neither: behaviorists, people turn out the way they are because of punishments and reinforcements
Clay, environment molds you into something else
Cognitive, machine
Neuroscience, people are nothing but bags of chemicals

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Is Psychology a science?

No, because people are random....

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The conceptual background of psychology-

philosophy
In learning you learn by making associations, not psychology idea but was taken from philosophy
Psychology should be experimental philosophy

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Perspectives on human nature before psychology

1. Materialism: idea that there us no mind or sou, just a body
A. Basic assumptions: monism (only a body)
Determinism: chemicals and atoms that follow laws of physics
Empiricism: idea that knowledge comes from senses
Reductionism: (Remember both meanings for test) try to explain things by breaking it down to smallest pieces and eventually all sciences will be reduced to physics
B. Names: Democritus- theory of perception: bodies shoot off copies of ourselves that hit the perceives eyeball and crawl up the optic nerve in the brain. The Eason the perceived can see you is because there are copies in their brain
Not wrong completely: not a copy but light is physical and we reflect light. The light doesn't crawl into the eyeball but the light does stimulate the rods and cones in the retina which in turn sends electrical activity to occipital lobe
Smell: particles go up nose
Taste: a molecule of food stimulates taste bud
Farthest you can get down to is colors and shapes of objects (the bottom line in sensory information)
C. Examples
Aristotle: laws of association
Laws of associationism
-resemblance (similarity)
-contiguity; close together
Two ways: time (temporal) and spatial (space)
Ex: 8 pm and sleep
Or shoes and socks
-contrast (opposites)
Ex: tall and short
-frequency (happen together often)
Ex: morning and breakfast
Locke: mind is a blank slate
Ideas in head have to be learned through experiences
Learn what a dog is through experiences
Berkeley: depth perception and perception creates the world
Have to learn it! Through experience
Hume: cause and effect
Learn things happen for a reason
Learn through experience (association)
Hartley: associate stimuli with responses
Bain: theory of voluntary behavior
Ex: bought hamburger from the result of steps
1. You have a need for something (food)
2. Perform a random behavior
3. If behavior satisfies the need you repeat it
4.doesn't, don't do it again
D. Relevance to psychology
Skinner: theory of voluntary behavior ( he took it from Bain!)
Rat needs food
Put into operant chamber
Rat performs random behavior
Walks close you feed pellet (shaping)
Piaget: cause and effect (prove Humes idea)
Babies learn cause and effect, make associations
Piaget object permanence (kind if like what Barkley is saying!)
Blank slate
Pavlov contiguity and frequency with his study of dogs (taken from Aristotle)
Watson: operant conditions with white coat and white rat same as resemblance by Aristotle
Background of cognitive and learning
Different methods but Same ideas

13

Freud

Our unconscious mind (Freud) Freudian slip: unconscious mind make you say it!
Inborn drives

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Democritus-

theory of perception: bodies shoot off copies of ourselves that hit the perceives eyeball and crawl up the optic nerve in the brain. The Eason the perceived can see you is because there are copies in their brain
Not wrong completely: not a copy but light is physical and we reflect light. The light doesn't crawl into the eyeball but the light does stimulate the rods and cones in the retina which in turn sends electrical activity to occipital lobe
Smell: particles go up nose
Taste: a molecule of food stimulates taste bud

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III. Rationalism

A. Basic assumptions
-dualism
-determinism

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Rationalism (logic)

Laws of logic where these conclusions HAVE to happen
I am a woman, women are mortal, I'm mortal

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Watson:

operant conditions with white coat and white rat same as resemblance by Aristotle
Background of cognitive and learning
Different methods but Same ideas

18

Piaget

object permanence (kind if like what Barkley is saying!)
Blank slate

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Pavlov

contiguity and frequency with his study of dogs (taken from Aristotle)

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Skinner: theory of voluntary behavior ( he took it from Bain!)

Rat needs food
Rat needs food
Put into operant chamber
Rat performs random behavior
Walks close you feed pellet (shaping)

21

Bain:

theory of voluntary behavior
bought hamburger from the result of steps
1. You have a need for something (food)
2. Perform a random behavior
3. If behavior satisfies the need you repeat it
4.doesn't, don't do it again

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Hartley:

associate stimuli with responses

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Hume:

cause and effect
Learn things happen for a reason
Learn through experience (association)

24

Berkeley:

depth perception and perception creates the world
Have to learn it! Through experience

25

Locke:

mind is a blank slate
Ideas in head have to be learned through experiences
Learn what a dog is through experiences

26

Aristotle:

laws of association
Laws of associationism
-resemblance (similarity)
-contiguity; close together
Two ways: time (temporal) and spatial (space)
Ex: 8 pm and sleep
Or shoes and socks
-contrast (opposites)
Ex: tall and short
-frequency (happen together often)
Ex: morning and breakfast

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The difference between rationalism and empiricism

-Source of Knowledge: Empiricism (Senses) trust senses
Rationalism (Logic) don't trust senses, they trick you!


Active mind vs passive
Empiricism (passive)
Rationalism (active)

How much is innate
Locke: mind is a blank slate. Empiricism believes you are born with abilities. In born ability to make associations and use imagination, logical thinking (for empiricism, don't be confused!)
Rationalism: abilities and ideas are with you at birth
Idea of right and wrong, God
Example: Plato: rationalism goes all the way back to him
His idea of where we get ideas from, our soul is floating in this world with perfect knowledge but when your born your soul gets shoved into body, this is traumatic so you repress your memories learning is uncovering what you knew
Descartes: I think therefor I am
I exist because I think, only true knowledge cones from thought NOT senses
Leibniz: petites perceptions- perception below the level of conscious awareness (subliminal)
1950s movies were to believe to have subliminal messages that got you to buy coke- NOT TRUE
Chinese ideograms are shown, before they put it up they flash fast a smile or frown face (too fast to see), smile- rate positive
Frown- rate negative
Most of what goes into mind is unconscious
Apperception: attention
Conscious level needs attention/apperception
Kant: innate categories of thought
Time: we think in terms of time passing, our innate way of seeing the world is that time passes some physicists believe time diesnt pass
Set up to believe in the impossible, but just cause it doesn't happen doesn't mean it's impossible can't take off rose colored glasses

28

Relevance to psychology:

Cognitive psych is rationalism

IV. Irrationalism
Dualism: mind and body
Free will
Holism
Nativism
Examples: Rousseau: noble savage...humans are naturally good
Savage: living outside civilization (this is the perfect person no outside influence)
Civilization is bad
Schopenhauer: born with innate drives, we should repress them
Nietzsche: innate drives, we should express them not repress them
Kierkegaard: the meaning of life, innate drive to search for it
Relevance to psychology: theories of personality

29

Locke:

mind is a blank slate. Empiricism believes you are born with abilities. In born ability to make associations and use imagination, logical thinking (for empiricism, don't be confused!)

30

Plato:

rationalism goes all the way back to him
His idea of where we get ideas from, our soul is floating in this world with perfect knowledge but when your born your soul gets shoved into body, this is traumatic so you repress your memories learning is uncovering what you knew

31

Descartes:

I think therefor I am I exist because I think, only true knowledge cones from thought NOT senses

32

Leibniz:

petites perceptions- perception below the level of conscious awareness (subliminal)
1950s movies were to believe to have subliminal messages that got you to buy coke- NOT TRUE
Chinese ideograms are shown, before they put it up they flash fast a smile or frown face (too fast to see), smile- rate positive
Frown- rate negative
Most of what goes into mind is unconscious
Apperception: attention
Conscious level needs attention/apperception

33

Kant:

innate categories of thought
Time: we think in terms of time passing, our innate way of seeing the world is that time passes some physicists believe time diesnt pass
Set up to believe in the impossible, but just cause it doesn't happen doesn't mean it's impossible can't take off rose colored glasses

34

Rousseau:

noble savage...humans are naturally good
Savage: living outside civilization (this is the perfect person no outside influence)
Civilization is bad

35

Schopenhauer:

born with innate drives, we should repress them

36

Nietzsche:

innate drives, we should express them not repress them

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Kierkegaard:

the meaning of life, innate drive to search for it
Relevance to psychology: theories of personality