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0

An "American" psychology
Reflects

American culture and society
A. Social and cultural background
B. Scientific background of functionalism

1

A. Social and cultural background
American society and culture are based on two things

1. Religious Freedom
Religion is really behavior modification
Reinforcer: heaven
Behavior modification
2. Business
Focus on bottom line:
Money is the bottom line.
Focus on practical questions
"How can I get people to buy things?"
Focus on individual differences
Ex: Better worker

2

B. Scientific background of functionalism

1. Evolution
Darwin: evolution of beaks on finches (physical)
Big influence on psychology
Spencer: social Darwinism
Survival of the fittest applied to society
No charity, school loans, special education, Obama care

3

Darwin:

evolution of beaks on finches (physical)
Big influence on psychology

4

Spencer:

social Darwinism
Survival of the fittest applied to society
No charity, school loans, special education, Obama care

5

What evolution meant for Psychology?

i. Continuity between humans and animals
Not so different from a I ask anymore. Now that we know we are the evolution of apes.
ii. Thinking is adaptive
We can think! It's our edge to survival.
Functionalism studies thinking to learn Practical purposes of thinking
Thinking has an adaptive purpose
Survival of the fittest
iii. Psychology focuses on individual differences. This persons mind vs that persons
Scientific background
1. Research on individual differences
Galton: no psych yet, smart rich guy studying. First guy who studied individual differences between people
i. Individual differences are innate
ii. Mental testing (IQ)
Whistling sounds, if you could hear it you were smarter! Born that way!
iii. Selective breeding of humans
Selectively breed insanely intelligent human race
Eugenics: selectively breeding human beings
Holocaust
But hitler stole most if his understanding if eugenics from U.S.
Give charity to desirables
Genius Sperm bank
iv. methodology
A. Correlating
B. Twin studies

6

Do our pets think?

When your trying to explain an animals behavior, do it by thinking about what a human would do. Explain their thinking. Explain in simpler terms, stimulus and response.

7

4. Animal research

A. Romans
B. Morgan

8

How social factors effect psychology?

Social and cultural

9

Psychology focuses on individual differences. This persons mind vs that persons

Scientific background
1. Research on individual differences
Galton: no psych yet, smart rich guy studying. First guy who studied individual differences between people
i. Individual differences are innate
ii. Mental testing (IQ)
Whistling sounds, if you could hear it you were smarter! Born that way!
iii. Selective breeding of humans
Selectively breed insanely intelligent human race
Eugenics: selectively breeding human beings
Holocaust
But hitler stole most if his understanding if eugenics from U.S.
Give charity to desirables
Genius Sperm bank
iv. methodology
A. Correlating
B. Twin studies

10

Galton:

no psych yet, smart rich guy studying. First guy who studied individual differences between people
i. Individual differences are innate
ii. Mental testing (IQ)
Whistling sounds, if you could hear it you were smarter! Born that way!
iii. Selective breeding of humans
Selectively breed insanely intelligent human race
Eugenics: selectively breeding human beings
Holocaust
But hitler stole most if his understanding if eugenics from U.S.
Give charity to desirables
Genius Sperm bank
iv. methodology
A. Correlating
B. Twin studies

11

Philosophical background

Pragmatacism: only philosophy developed in U.S.
Charles Pierce: founder of pragmatism
Pragmatic: practical
Basic ideas:
1. Truth is relative: no such thing as absolute truth
No true or false, differs from person to person
Whether believing in something's helps you or not
2. Most human behavior is in the result of habits
Do it out of force of habit not because you think about it
Habits are they true or false? No they are either good or bad? Good if it helps you in a practical way!

12

Charles Pierce:

founder of pragmatism
Pragmatic: practical
Basic ideas:
1. Truth is relative: no such thing as absolute truth
No true or false, differs from person to person
Whether believing in something's helps you or not
2. Most human behavior is in the result of habits
Do it out of force of habit not because you think about it
Habits are they true or false? No they are either good or bad? Good if it helps you in a practical way!

13

Functionalist psychology

a. Psych is a science, not humanities
b. what topics should psych study?
i. About the same as now
ii. Practical applied questions
Let's make money!
c. What methods should psychology use?
i. Participants: anybody! Including animals
ii. How should we collect DATA? Anyway!
d. How should we explain our findings?
i. Anyway!
ii. Explanation is NOT important!
iii. No specific theory to evaluate! Who cares whether your theory is right or not! You're not trying to prove or disprove theories! Not tied to just one way! This is kinda like us! Choose what you want and when you wanna use it!
iv. If it works who cares why? Just want the client to get better

14

Functionalist psychologists

Angell
William James
Dewey
Cattell
Hall
Woodworth

15

Angell

-> definition of functionalism
a. Study of mental activities: how your mind works?
b. Adaptive role of consciousness: what good dies it do? How dies it help us survive? Consciousness not so you can tell the limits of what you do but how it can adapt
c. Study of mind-body relationship
Both involved in survival!
Seeing the color red is good but knowing that red means stop and you hit the breaks was his focus!

16

William James:

- stream of consciousness:
Titchener was trying to isolate parts of consciousness. You can replicate what's in your consciousness over and over again
James said that's stupid! Consciousness can't be frozen! It's always changing
-emphasis on habit
Habit is something you do because you've done it in the past! 95% your doing things without thinking/conscious about it

17

Dewey

<3 The reflex Arc: functionalists ask how they work? What are they good for? His question why do we have reflexes? Survival!

18

Cattell

=> first to study mental testing and individual differences: first to systematically IQ test, measured individual differences
=> tried to turn psychology into a business: tried to make money off of it by selling IQ tests. Their expensive! Couldn't do therapy back then! He failed but someone else ran with it!

19

Hall

* Evolution as a framework for psychology: argued as kids develop they are kinda reliving the evolution of species
Babies were compared to cavemen
Adults were modern civilization
* Child study movement
* applied psychology to education

20

Woodworth

> Motivation: Why do you do anything! General area of psych that looks at the question why people do the things they do is called psych of motivation.he was the first to study what motivates people. Not just thinkers, were doers too!