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Flashcards in History of Rock Deck (65):
1

W.C. Handy

Father of Blues
Composed St Louis Blues and Memphis Blues through TPA
Made 12 bar blues popular

2

Scott Joplin

Ragtime composer
Form derived from marches
"Syncopation gone mad"
Maple Leaf Rag

3

Bessie Smith

"Empress of the Blues"
St Louis Blues
Backwater Blues
Downhearted Blues-roots of selling blues records
Classic Blues (more refined)
Defiant
Saved Columbia Records
Worked with Louis Armstrong

4

James Reese Europe

Marching band leader
Expressive glides
Helped popularize jazz and ragtime in Europe during WWI
12 bar blues
hybrid of blues and marching

5

Mamie Smith

Okeh Records
Crazy Blues helped launch race records
Classic Blues reminiscent of New Orleans Jazz

6

Robert Johnson

Most influential country blues artist
Huge influence on Chicago electric blues
Crossroads Blues
slow shuffle bass line while also playing melody

7

Muddy Waters

I'm Your Hoochie Coochie Man
Slow shuffle, stop time, sexual, badass
Chicago/electric blues scene
Chess Records

8

Bob Wills

Bob Wills and his Texas Boys
Western Swing (adaptation from jazz)
Steel Guitar Rag

9

Hank Williams

Hey Good Lookin'
Loveside Blues (TPA)
Romantic image
Sang about love
Appealed to popular music
Grand Ole Opry
Died young but iconic

10

Count Basie

Showcased rhythm section
Wrote arrangements: Start with a riff, layer more
Swing Jazz
Swing beat
Jumpin in the Woodside

11

Duke Ellington

House band leader
Swing music scene
Take the A Train
Call-and-response
Contrast in dynamics
Huge sound
"Make something happen in 3 minutes"

12

Jimmie Rodgers

First Country music star
Elements of jazz, blues, and yodeling
Waitin on a train
Blue Yodel #11
Public image: hard livin' man

13

Louis Armstrong

Trumpet, cornet
Wife, Lil Hardin, played with him
Scat singing: relaxed vocal phrasing
Huge influence on crooners
Helped jazz shift from polyphony to alternating between solos
Potato Head Blues
New Orleans Jazz
Okeh Records
Collaborated St Louis Blues with Bessie Smith

14

Louis Jordan

Louis Jordan and the Timpani 5
Father of Rhythm and Blues
Comedic
Choo Choo Ch'Boogie
Caldonia
Got into Pop mainstream
Clarinet, used to play big bands

15

Big Joe Turner

Shake Rattle and Roll
Hokum Blues (promiscuous lyrics)
Sang behind boogie woogie pianists
Rhythm and Blues
Atlantic Records
Jukebox #1

16

Ruth Brown

Mama He Treats Your Daughter Mean
Dynamic performer
Feminist issues
Queen of Rhythm and Blues
Doo Wop

17

Fats Domino

I'm Walkin'
Ain't that a Shame
Blueberry Hill
Rhythm and Blues hits, then pop charts hits
One of the first rock n roll crossovers
Tamer lyrics than Hokum singers
Warm friendly image (even the KKK liked him!)

18

Little Richard

"King and Queen of Rock n Roll"
Sexual lyrics
Influenced by Ruth Brown's gospel shouting
First Wild, flamboyant rockstar
Gender-bending, glam
Teens loved his aggressive, sexual style
Tutti Frutti
Rhythm and Blues charts, pop charts

19

Alan Freed

Coined "Rock n Roll"
Announcer on radio show sponsored by Record Rendezvous
Most influential dj in rock n roll's breakthrough to mainstream
Lost radio show in Payola scandal
Rebellious
Moondog Show super successful

20

Chuck Berry

Maybelline
Johnny B Goode
Perceived as a country singer
1st Guitar god
Distorted guitar, solos
Duck walk
Didn't live rock n roll lifestyle
Violated Mann Act
Double stops
Appreciated hillbilly, Western swing, and country
Wrote for teens

21

Elvis Presley

1st to get #1 on all 3 charts
That's Alright Mama
Blue Moon of Kentucky
Cover songs
Slapback echo
Films
Sam Phillips (Sun Records) sells contract to RCA
Tom Parker manager-very controlling, 50%
Ed Sullivan only shot from waist up
"King" because dancer, handsome, cemented rock as cultural phenomenon, versatile voice


22

Jerry Lee Lewis

Known for performances
Set piano on fire-starts autodestructive art
Great Balls of Fire
One of the few rockabilly pianists
Louisiana
Married his 13 y/o cousin

23

Dick Clark

Manager, publisher
American Bandstand show-dance crazes, lip synch
Catered to mainstream tastes, not sexual
Kept job after payola scandal because he was polite and clean cut

24

Jerry Wexler

There Goes my Baby
Atlantic Records
Sweet Soul
Producer
Coined the term Rhythm and Blues

25

Phil and Leonard Chess

Chess Records
White fans of black music
Simple equipment for an unsophisticated sound
These records --> most impact on rock n roll

26

Sam Phillips

Talent scout for Sun Records-indie label in Memphis
Sold Elvis to RCA

27

Frankie Avalon

Teen idol
Tried to be next Elvis
Independents and major labels

28

Phil Specter

Ambitious producer
Apprentice to Leiber and Stoler
"First teen millionaire"
Wall of Sound
Girl groups

29

Carole King

Songwriter with Gerry Goffin
#1 hit at age 18: Will You Still Love Tomorrow performed by Shirelles

30

Brian Wilson

Beach Boys main songwriter
Wanted to write deeper stuff
Influenced by Doo Wop vocal harmonies
Wanted to top Beatles and Spector


31

Leiber and Stoler

Writers and producers
Innovations: orchestral string, timpani, Latin
Worked for different labels
Influenced Motown and soul
Thought of selves as black

32

New Orleans Jazz

Polyphony
Mainly trumpet, clarinet, trombone
(Some Piano, banjo, tuba, drums)
King Oliver
Louis Armstrong
Jelly Roll Morton

33

Big Band Jazz

Vocalist provides variety
Goodman, Dorsey, Miller
Call and response
Emphasis on written arrangements

34

Classic Blues

Like early jazz
Refined
Piano, bass, horns, drums
Bessie Smith

35

Rockabilly

Slapped acoustic bass
Country influenced Rock n Roll
Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly

36

Country Blues

Rural
Typically solo male singing w/ guitar
Robert Johnson

37

Delta Blues

Subset of Country Blues
Hard livin' traveling man
Blind Lemon Jefferson

38

Piedmont Blues

Subset of Country blues
Dance, higher tempo
Ragtim-based rhythm
Hokum
Banjo style finger picking
Tampa Red, Georgia Tom

39

Ragtime

Solo piano or band horns
Form derived from marches
Syncopation
Scott Joplin
Fats Waller
Bad reactions
Influenced jazz

40

Boogie Woogie

Blues based
Virtuosic piano
Walking bass
Up tempo
12 bar blues
Albert Ammons, Pete Johnson

41

Jump Blues

Smaller big band jazz + boogie woogie rhythms
Fast tempo
Louis Jordan

42

Doo Wop

Vocal harmony
Orioles, chords, Ruth brown

43

Surf Rock

Cali laid-back culture
Dick Dale and the Del-tones
Beach Boys

44

Schlock Rock

Teen idols, "ideal bf"
Frankie Avalon, Paul Anka
All very micromanaged

45

Crooners

Invention of the microphone lets them sing softer
Rudy Vallee
Bing Crosby
Frank Sinatra
Cab Calloway

46

Minstrelsy

1880s-1950s
Blackface
1st mass entertainment form
Somewhat similar to black folk music
Exaggerated black characters:
"Jim Crow" - lazy slave
"Zip Coon" - black dandy
Appeal: exoticism, nostalgia, living vicariously

47

Brill Building

Overlaps with TPA
Music industry offices
Writers/producers
Mediated black music for popular audiences

48

Song pluggers

People that sang and played sheets for music stores to promote songs

49

Doo Wop Changes

Chord Progression:
I VI IV V I

50

ASCAP

American Society of Composers and Publishers
Collect royalties
Restricted minorities, except WC Handy

51

BMI

Broadcast Music Incorporated
More inclusive of minorities than ASCAP

52

Slapback Echo

Layering 2 recordings
Sam Phillips thought it simulated live shows
Rockabilly music

53

Frankfurt School

NeoMarxist philosophy school
Viewed mass culture as a tool of those in power
"Rock n roll is degenerate"

54

Birmingham School

Against

55

Tutti Frutti

1955

56

Rocket 88

1950s
Shuffle feel
Distorted guitar
Boogie piano
Walking bass

57

Maybelline

1955

58

Tutti Frutti

1955

59

Rock around the clock

1954
Less sexual, more dances
Signaled that rock n roll defined youth

60

That's Alright Mama (Elvis)

1954
Acoustic & electric guitar
Slapback Echo

61

Importance of covers

White artists cover black songs because hey can sign with major labels and blacks can't
Indie record companies sucked at collecting royalties

62

TPA

1880s-1930s

63

Brown vs Board of Education

1954

64

Little Rock Incident

He was supposed to perform overseas but didn't want to represent the shitty USA

65

National Barn Dance

WLS-tv station
Became Grand Ole Opry