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Respiratory Pathophysiology Exam 1 > History & Physical > Flashcards

Flashcards in History & Physical Deck (24)
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1

What is palpation?

The process whereby the examiner uses the hands to feel for the body movement , lumps , masses, and skin characteristics.

2

What is auscultation?

The most commonly used physical assessment technique. Involves listening to body sounds with a stethoscope placed on bare skin.

3

What is percussion?

Requires the examiner to place a finger firmly against a body part and strike that finger with a fingertip from the other hand.

4

What is inspection?

Ranges from casual observation to visual scrutiny of the patient

5

Percussion notes:
Flat

Soft, high pitched , and short of duration

6

Percussion notes:
Dull

Medium intensity , pitch , and duration.

7

Percussion notes:
Resonant

Loud, low in pitch , and of long duration.

8

Percussion notes:
Hyperresonant

Very lord, lower in pitch, long in duration

9

Percussion notes:
Tympanic

Loud and drum-like , with a high pitch

10

Tachypnea

Respiration a faster than 20 breaths per minute.

11

Hyperpnea

Rapid , deep labored breathing.

12

Kussmaul respirations

Describes hyperventilation as a compensatory mechanism for metabolic acidosis , most commonly diabetic ketoacidosis

13

Orthopnea

Refers to an individual that must sit or stand to breath.

14

Platypnea

Refers to individuals difficulty to breath , but relieved when lying down.

15

Bradypnea

A rate slower than 12 breaths per minute

16

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

Characterized by sudden shortness of breath that occurs several hours after the individual lies down

17

Cheyne-Stokes respirations

Characterized by episodes of slot , shallow breathe , which rapidly increase in depth and rare.

18

Biots respiration

Symptomatic of elevated intracranial pressure and meningitis , short burst of uniform , deep respirations , followed by periods of apnea lasting 10-30 seconds

19

Crackles

Discontinuous
Bubbling or crackling sound heard during inspiration or expiration
Air flowing through airways with secretions or fluid

20

Rhonchi

Deep, rumbling sounds that are more pronounced on expiration.

21

Wheezes

Continuous sound heard in inspiration, expiration or both
Musical
Air flowing through constricted airways
Constricted through bronchospasm , mucosal edema, excessive sputum , or foreign body

22

Normal breath sounds:
Tracheal/Bronchial

Heard ONLY over the trachea , high pitch ; loud and long expirations, often somewhat longer than inspiration

23

Normal breath sounds:
Bronchovesicular

Heard over main bronchus area and upper right posteriors lung field:medium pitch , expiration equaling inspiration.

24

Normal breath sounds :
Vesicular

Heard over MOST lung fields;low pitch; soft and short expirations; accentuated in thin person or child and diminished in overweight or very muscular individuals