Hitler And Nazi Germany Flashcards Preview

History > Hitler And Nazi Germany > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hitler And Nazi Germany Deck (83):

What were the effects on Germany at the end of World War One

Germans were exhausted physically and mentally as the blockade stopped all essential supplies from getting into Germany
Harder to find supplies of food,clothing,fuel,chemicals and medicine
Coal was in short supply which led to power cuts
Rationing reduced even further



Sealing off a place to prevent goods or people from entering or leaving



To give up the throne king or queen



An agreement to stop fighting


What were reasons for Germany losing the war

Civilians were dying of starvation
Thousand of soldiers were deserting
The flu epidemic killed thousands of Germans
To make things worse the USA joined the war against Germany in 1917 this led to huge defeat for the Germans in spring in 1918


The spartacist revolution when was it

January 1919


Who was the leader of the social Democratic Party

Friedrich elbert


What did friedrich Elbert want

To create a democratic Germany where people would elect representatives to the reichstag to pass laws to help the German people


What did friedrich Elbert recognise

Many German people had different views on how the country should be run


What did friedrich Elbert believe

Any change should come through open debate in the reichstag and through laws passed by elected representatives


Why did so many people disagree with friedrich Elbert response

Wanted faster change and were willing to be violent


Who were the spartacists

Communists who wanted to overthrow the provisional government
Biting WW1 had protested against the war and many of their leaders were sent to prison


Who released the leaders of the spartacists and when

In October 1918 chancellor max on Baden


What were the spray vista aims

Wanted working classes to control society
Didn't want to work through parliamentary debate because they believed the upper classes would use their power in the reichstag to block any reforms that would be of benefit to the working classes
One spartacists demand was to abolish all parliament and transfer all power to the workers and soldiers councils



To refuse to follow orders soldiers/ sailors



A big change in a political system when the old system is completely overthrow usually by violence



a local council made up of soldiers and workers to rule their own areas


What did German politicians hope

If they were not lead by the kaiser it would create a New Democratic country
That german wouldn't be severely punished when they had to write a peace treaty
Why did the kaiser have to abdicate


Who was the new political leader

Prince max of Baden
Why did the kaiser have to abdicate


What did prince max of Baden deal with

Germans enemies
Why did the kaiser have to abdicate


What did prince max of Baden do

Wrote to US president Woodrow Wilson in 1918 3rd October suggesting to avoid further bloodshed
Why did the kaiser have to abdicate


What did the German government request

The president to bring about the immediate conclusion of an armistice by land by sea and in the air
Why did the kaiser have to abdicate


What did president Woodrow Wilson offer Germany

A 14 point peace plan the offer was rejected by German military leaders as they wanted to win the war
Why did the kaiser have to abdicate


What did the allied leaders want

Kaiser on war crimes there was also a demand to hang the kaiser
Wanted to punish Germany they made it clear that the kaiser would have to go before they would stop the war in November 1918
Why did the kaiser have to abdicate


What did German sailors not want to risk

80000 lives for a pointless battle in Kiel 3rd November 1918


Hamburg Bremen and lubeck were what

Ports in the power of soldiers sailors and workers 6th November


Soldiers sailors and workers got their ideas from

Russo where they had been a revolution for a few months before


What capital of Germany was token over

Berlin on 9th November by workers and soldiers councils as the revolution spread quickly


Why did friedrich Elbert need support

To defeat the spartacists on 10th November 1918 he struck a deal with general groenar chief of the army
In return for the army's support Elbert promised to do nothing that would harm the interests of the army


In return of the army support what did friedrich Elbert do

Promised not to do nothing that would harm the interests of the army


What did groenar plan

To march ten divisions of the army into Berlin to take power from the workers and soldiers councils


What were the friedkorps

Experienced balls hardened and heavily armed they were out for revenge


What happened on 4th January the bloody week

Berlin chief of police sacked by Elbert for refusing to take up arms against striking workers


What did several workers do the bloody week

Sieve control of a newspaper office and set up barricades on the streets


What did spartacists leaders do the bloody week

Appealed for a general strike on 7th January


What did 500000 people do the bloody week

Surfer the street that weekend of Berlin in support of the spartacists


What happened on 8th January the bloody week

Spartacists leaders debated what they should do next while hundreds of thousands of workers waited for orders on the freezing streets of Berlin


What did elevate do when workers were waiting for orders the bloody week

Ordered the friedkorps to attack them


What did the freiedkorps do the bloody week

They quickly took over the streets and almost 700 people were captured and executed


What happened to the leaders Karl liebknecht and rosa Luxembarg the bloody week

Were arrested on 15th January were captured for several hours before liebknecht was shot in the head and buried with 30 other spartacists killed in the uprising


Where was luxemburgs body found the bloody week

Several months later in the landwehr canal


What was the president

Elected every 7 year
Appoints the chancellor
In emergency can make laws without first going to reichstag


What did the German people do

Elect president
Elect reichstag
All adults can vote all have equal rights


What did the chancellor do

Appointed from the reichstag by the president
Had to be supported by a a majority of the reichstag


What did the reichstag do

Make laws for the German people
Proportional representation parties got same proportion of seats as their proportion of votes


When was the Weimar constitution appointed and by who

July 1919 by National Assembly


What was the Welmar constitution

A set of rules by which a country is governed especially in relation to the rights of the people


Who was elected president and when

Friedrich Elbert
11th February 1919


What did the German government do in 1919

Moved away from violent atmosphere of Berlin to the town of welmar


Welmar republic refers to what

Time between 1919 and 1933 when Germany was a republic ruled by elected representatives


What was article 109
Fundamental laws

All Germans are equal before laws


What was article 114
Fundamentall laws

Personal freedom is inviolable no restraint or deprivation of personal liberty by the public power is admissable unless authorised by law


What was article 115
Fundamental laws

The residence of every german is a santuary for him and inviolable


What was article 116
Fundamnetal laws

No one may be punished for an act unless such act was legally punishable at the time when it was committed


What was article 117
Fundamental laws

The secrecy of correspondence as well as the secrecy of postal and telephonic communications is inviolable


What was article 118
Fundamental laws

Every german is entitled within the limits of the general law freely to express his opinions by word of mouth, writing, printing, pictorial representation or other wise.
Laws are also permitted for the purpose of combating pornographic publications


What was article 124
Fundamental laws

All Germans have the right to form societies or associations for any object that does not counter to the criminal law
The same provisions apply to religious societies and bodies


Describe the rights all Germans had in the Welmar republic have

Germans have the right to privacy in their homes
Germans are allowed to follow any religion they wish
Germans are allowed to have freedom of movement ( can travel where they wish)
German people had a right to privacy in letters and telephone calls
All Germans were free to join any political party
All Germans were free to form any political parties
All german men and women over the age of 20 could vote in elections


What did the armistice do the treaty of Versailles 1919

On 11th November 1918 it was agreed that there would be a peace conference held in Paris to discuss what would happen to the defeated powers


What did the conference do and when was it held the treaty of Versailles

Began on 12th January 1919
Meetings were held at various locations in and around Paris until January 20th 1920


What 3 countries were represented at the conference

Known as the big three
Woodrow Wilson- USA president
George Clemenceau- France president
David Lloyd George-British president


What did Woodrow wilson believe

Did not believe that the treaty should be too harsh on Germany


What did David Lloyd George believe

Germany needed to be punished after the war


What did George Clemencean believe

Wanted revenge on Germany


Military terms

Germany was disarmed
Army was reduced to 100000 men
10 battleships
Wasn't allowed submarines and airforce was disbanded
No military in Rhineland


Economic terms

Reparation payments of 6.6 billion
Germany lost 13% of her lands and 10% of population
Germany lost all her countries


Why did this anger Germany

Germany couldn't afford this
We're angry that they were now part of another country
Was angry that they could not be trusted to run overseas countries
Furious that they would no longer be able to abequately defend themselves
Germany was admitting that they started the war


What was article 231

Known as the war guilt cause and by signing the treaty Germany was admitting that they started the war


Who did Germany blame

Weimar government for signing the treaty which they called a diktat ( Germany had no say in what happened )


Weimar Republic timetable

November 3rd 1918 Kiel mutiny
November 9th 1918 kaiser abdicates
November 11th peace treaty signed
January 1919 the spartacist revolution
January 1919 provisional government move to city of Weimar
February 1919 elbert formally elected as president
June 1919 treat of Versailles signed
June 1923 invasion of the Ruhr and hyperinflation crisis


Why were France and Belgium angry at Germany

Paying late reparations as they needed to rebuild their countries also wanted to make Germany weak


How did hyperinflation affect people

Huge cues out shops
Mental health problems such as depression spread over Germany
Germans who paid rent became homeless due to rent rises
People became ill as they couldn't buy food or have heating
If they waited till evening prices went up
People starved and became homeless used to get given money pensioners disabled unemployed war widows benefits
Sold valuable to buy goods
Some workers paid twice daily
Workers received wages in basket



Sudden collapse in the value of german money


Passive resistance

Registing by refusing to work for the French



Heavy industrialised region of western Germany


What did France do

Invaded Germany's Ruhr ( countries coal and steel) as Germany were not paying their reparations which gave France money instead of Germany


What happened when France invaded the Ruhr

German could not stop them so Germany told their workers to refuse to work for the French this was known as passive resistance


What happened when the workers in the Ruhr went on strike

Germany stopped creating wealth at all
However the government continued to pay the workers by printing more money


Describe the reasons why so many Germans were opposed to the Treaty of Versailles's

Germany got no say in the treaty called it a diktats I dictated peace
Felt and humiliated Germany was unacceptable too harsh
Loss of colonies about to be on fair
Germany lost land people living under foreign rule


Describe the treatment of Jews in Nazi Germany

Jews were open and abused and beaten up on the streets
Sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews outside marriage was a criminal offence
Many Jews were sent to concentration camps are murdered
1930 5G is forbidden to join the army restrictions and opportunities for employment education


Describe the appeal of Adolf Hitler between 1929 and 1933

Hitler do people somebody to blame for their problems such as Communist and Jews
Hitler promised something for everyone he claimed he was the only person who would create jobs and and depression
Do you are worried middle-class Hitler looks like the only person willing to take on the Communist
The SE brownshirts seemed well organised and disciplined which made Hitler look like a strong leader


Describe why there is a lack of effective oppositionin Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1939

Opposition leaders were arrested and killed many leaders fly Germany
Opposition groups were offered infiltrated by the Nazis the group had to meet in secret
Little cooperation between opposition groups left-wing opposition communist and socialist refused to cooperate
Most church group agreed to cooperate with the Nazis


Explain the reasons why the Weimar government was unpopular until 1925

Some people felt coalition government were weak party seem too busy arguing to stop the countries problems
Many Germans didn't like democracy longed for the return of the strong leadership of the kaiser
Frequent changes of government made it difficult to follow consistent policies
Six governments in six years in the mid 1920s created an appearance of a weak government
Criticised by Nationalists for given into foreign powers
Criticised for allowing France to invade the Ruhr