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Flashcards in Hitlers Germany Deck (29):
1

Impact of wall street crash and depression in Germany

Wall Street crash-6 mill- 1932

Get gov powerless- system of proportional representation- several small parties in the reichstag- but no party had more then 1/2 seats so many parties had to join in coalition in order to get votes passed a majority

Nazis had msg (111)

Josef Goebbals- head of propaganda
Targeted people

Local issues exploited
SA (Nazi private army- brownshirts) threatened political opponents, encourages chaos and meeting of other parties disruped, memebers beaten and fires started. Blames communists

Hate if TOV

2

Weimar system of gov

W proportional representation- Germany always had coalition gov

Often disagreed- ineffective gov

Article 48 Constitution- President can, in emergency- make laws w out consulting reichstag
At the time- Hindenburg- ww1 hero- his job to establish a stable gov so solutions could be found to economic crisis

1930-1932-Brüing was chancellor- unpopular
Raised taxes. Cut levels of unemployment benefits and reduces salaries of gov employees

Nazis pop
Hitler appealed to nationalism, pride, and hated skews and showed propaganda to prove

Decided to fight Hindenburg in elections
Hindenburg 19 mill
Butler 13 mill

3

Reichstag elections Nazis

May 1928-12
March 1933- 288 NOT MAJORITY

4

Hitler's appointed chancellor

May 1932- Papen chancellor
Unpopular
Centre party
Not enough support to rule effectively
General election
July 1932- Nazis gained 230 at expensive of minority parties

Papen needed more support
Another election Nov 1032
Nazis 196
Fewer seats- resigned
Schlecher- few resigned

Hitler-
Pressure of him to do this since July 1932- Nazis largest political party
Forced to
Limit Hitler's power by making Papen vice chancellor and restricting number of other Nazis in cabinet to 2

5

How Hitler became chancellor

Impact on Wall Street crash and depression in Germany

Weimar state gov

Appointed

6

How did Hitler change Germany from a democracy to Nazi dictatorship

Reichstag fire
Election and enabling act
Elimination of political opponents
Elimination of SA

7

Reichstag fire

Hitler called election 1933 March

27 Feb 1933 fire when Hitler and Josef dinner

Drove

Hitler blamed communists

LUBBE caught at scene. Responsible?
After 11 months- found guilty and beheaded

Communists claimed Hitler's plan to blame communists
One story claimed LUBBE started but SA did rest

Day after fire- Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to pass Emergency Decree using Article 48 of constitution
Law for 'protection of the People and the State'
gave Hitler sweeping powers to arrest anyone suspected of opposing gov
Ended all personal liberty, freedom of expression+ took control of press

Gave Hitler opportunity to act against political opponents
Many arrested or afraid to vote- threatening behaviour of SA
SA intimidated and tried to force open opposition to Nazis so they could be arrested

8

One party state

288 seats
Not majority
Just 44%

Dissapointed

Used state of emergency declared by president to stop communists taking seats

Won over centre party w promises to protect Catholic Church in Ger
Nationalists also prepared to support
Arriving at Krol Opera House people- ushered in ny heavily armed SA men

Reichstag memebers passed enabling act- gave Hitler power to make laws w our Reichstag. Reichstag members voted to let Hitler and Nazis do whatever they wanted

Biggest threat- communists
Banned after Reichstag

May- July
Other political parties banned inc ones that helped him b chancellor

Using powers following enabling act- Hitler passed law against formation of parties
Meant Nazi party only political org allowed in Ger
Many prominent Socialists and Communists arrested

Trade unions- contained many communist supporters- closed down in May 1933 and replaced by Nazis own trade Union- German Labour Front

July 1933- signed concordat w pope. Catholics agreed to accept Hitler's promise that he would not interfere w Catholicism in Ger. agreement gave Hitler international prestige

Lazy

9

Elimination of political opposition

Biggest threat- communists
Banned after Reichstag

May- July
Other political parties banned inc ones that helped him b chancellor

Using powers following enabling act- Hitler passed law against formation of parties
Meant Nazi party only political org allowed in Ger
Many prominent Socialists and Communists arrested

Trade unions- contained many communist supporters- closed down in May 1933 and replaced by Nazis own trade Union- German Labour Front

July 1933- signed concordat w pope. Catholics agreed to accept Hitler's promise that he would not interfere w Catholicism in Ger. agreement gave Hitler international prestige

10

Hitler's elimination of SA

Summer 1933- dictatorship nearly done

Not fully in control of SA- under leadership of Röhm

SA had rep for violence and causing chaos- gave Nazis bad name

Röhm had ambitions for SA to become more powerful (about 2 mill members) and Hitler's saw that SA could challenge his leadership and Röhm also potential threat

Hitler had SS
Wanted them to replace SA
He was told Röhm and other SA leaders plotting against him and planning to seize power immediately (only 1st part true)
Hitler decided to act

30 June 1934
Hitler used SS to arrest and shoot leading members of SA

SA members were having meeting near Munich
7am ish number of SS cars came to village
'You're under arrest'
By 10am- SS rounded up leading members of SA in Berlin
Some shot
Röhm shot after refusing suicide in prison
Process continued a few days and nights

Not all those shot- about 200- SA members- got rid of other opponents eg precious chancellor Shleicher

Hitler told Reichstag he acted swiftly to save nation from potentional civil war. The Reichstag, consisting only of Nazis accepted this version of events w out question

11

Fuhrer

2 Aug 1934
Hundenburg died
Hitler combined offices of president and chancellor together
Became führer or leader
German army swore oath of loyalty to Hitler
Gained total power working Ger

12

Law and order

Nazis abolished right to trial before imprisonment

Judges replaced by Nazi supporters

SS and Gestapo could put people in concentration camps w out trial

1934- Hitler set up 'People's Court' which tried People for 'crimes against the state'

Any opponent of Nazi was called enemy against state

13

SS and Gestapo

SS formed 1925 as Hitler's personal bodyguard

By early 1930s became party's own police force

After night of the long knives June 1934 became most important militant group within State under leader Himmler


Gestapo secret police- first in state of Prussia then over whole of Ger from 1936

Heydrich=head

Job- search out opponent of Nazis- and had powers to arrest and imprison

Used informers to uncover any attempts to org opposition

Used torture to extract info and confessions

14

Concentration camps

Any arrested by Gestapo can be held in protective custody in concentration camp

When camps first established, over 100,000 prisoners.
Most political opponents

Once Nazi got full power, less political prisoners

Camps run by SS guards
Deaths head unit
Trained to be ruthless and cruel
Beatings given for minor offences
Anything more major- execution w out trial



15

Propaganda

Short slogans - newspapers magazines

Huge marches and rallies to show power of Germany
Every Sept 1933-38---> huge rally held at numerberg
Event lasted several days- was a mix of spectacle, parade, religious ceremony etc
Film maker- Riefenstahl paid to produce films- promoted Nazi and shown across Ger

Largest propaganda event- when Berlin staged Olympic game 1936
Poster removed
News carefully controlled

Photographed w kids and dogs and military leader

16

Censorship- The media

German radio brought under state control 1934
Goebbals arranged 6000 loudspeakers to be set up in public places so everyone could hear gov announcements
Cheap radios manufactures so most families could afford to buy one
Foreign stations difficult to tune it as of waveband used by German stations

Only source of news allowed- State controlled press agency
Detailed instructions given at daily press conference abound how news was to be presented.
Only newspapers allowed were Nazi run

Cinema- adventure/romance that Hitler liked; and often had a pro Nazi message.
Riemftestahl movies

Books not approved by Hitler burnt
Huge bonfire org by Nazis- May 1933
20,000 books burnt and works of over 2500 writers banned inc Marx

17

Censorship- control of education

Education controlled from the moment children started school so they learnt Nazi beliefs

History- taught Nazi version of past- eg Germany was stabbed in the back by German politicians who were influenced by Jews at end of WW1

Boys taught military skills
Girls taught housekeeping cookery and how to be good mothers
Older children- eugenics- study of how to improve German race by selective breeding

Biology-Aryans superior
Geography- land loss that Ger needed

All Jewish teachers sacked
And all teachers had to take oath of loyalty to Hitler

18

Cencorship-Youth movements

Initiated youth org- became compulsory after 1936

Different groups- 6-10. 10-14. 14-18

All taught about Nazi beliefs and given lots of physical exercise and training

Older boys expected to learn military discipline

Girls has League of German girls
Aimed to make girls fit to become strong mothers

Many loved idea
Provided opportunities for weekends away camping and hiking
Despite Nazi view of women, they could travel away and meet teenagers from other areas of Germany

19

Censorship-Control of churches

No respect for Christianity

Views vague as lots of followers Christian

Talked about positive Christianity and try to appeal to Catholics and Protestants (both groups strong in diff areas of Ger)

Knew party's opposition veto communism who help gain support from Christian's due to communisms atheism

Catholic Church should have benefitted from Concordat in 1933
But much interference in curriculum of Catholic schools and some teachers dismissed
In late 1930s hundreds of priests and nuns arrested on unlikely charges

Protestant Churches grouped to form Reich Church
Many churchgoers accepted- many Nazi supporters and happy to wear uniforms in church
Some objected and formed own separate church
Clear challenge to Nazi power- several hundred pastors arrested
Pastor Martin- famous spokesmen of 1930s spent 7 years in concentration camps

20

To what extent did Germans benefit from Nazi Rule 1930s

Economic policies

Social policies and standard of living

Women

German culture

Racial persecution

Treatment of undesirables

21

How did Hitler change Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship

One party state
Terror
Propaganda
Youth
Workforce
Reichstag fire
Religion
Racism

Enabling??? WAT

22

Did Germans benefit from Nazi Rule

Economic policies

Social policies and standards of living

Women

Culture

Racial persecution

Treatment of undesirables

23

Benefit
Economic policies

6000000 unemployed

Promised to bring down

Nazis spent vast amount on job creation schemes
Public money
Amount doubled between 1933-38

Project- road building
Intended to build 7500km of motorway

German labour front org and directed workers into jobs

Public works provided thousands of jobs inc forestry work, water projects, New hospitals, schools and sports stadium

1939- labour front had 44,500 paid officials

Got rid of TOV by allowing conscription and rearmament 1935
Army grew from 100,000 to 1.4 mill 1939
Huge amounts spent on military equip- aircrafts and tanks (26 billion in 1938)

More jobs

Coal iron and steel

6 mill to virtually 0 from official Nazi fig
Need not inc when lost right as German citizens
Not were women who left employment to start family
Nor were opponents in concentration camps

Hitler's aim- make Ger self sufficient as could afford imports
Didn't totally succeed
Still depended on Swedish iron ore and one food still imported
Under 4 years plan- 1936- Ger aiming for Self suffiecieny so War

Much achieved
Impose for full self efficiency
Some natural stuff not on Ger ground
Need to invade for food and raw materials and need Lebenstraum

24

Benefit- social policies and standards of living

Many Ger believed Nazi Rule- improving lives
Unemployment dropped drastically and few starving
Many appreciated actions taken to improve lives
Wages imp so people didn't mind- people tended not to Sewell on inc length of average working week

Small businesses did well as competing Jew business closed down
Huge construction projects made

July 1935- compulsory for all Ger men 18-35 6 months work on practical projects
Not paid wages- pocket money
Never pop but have sense of purpose for unemployed

'Strength through joy org' part of Ger Labour Front
Attempted to provide leisure time to ensure happy workforce
Holidays and cruises and concerts theatre sports weekend trips etc low cost
Gave ordinary workers access to activities previously only enjoyed by rich

As part of Strength thru Joy- butler wanted Ger to have own car- Volkwsgon- designed and in 1938- foundation set for factory where cars made

Rhineland
Anschluss-1938
Pride and secure
Olympics-1936 Berlin

25

Effect of Nazi policy - women be

'Natural'
Wives and mothers

kinder Kirche Küche
Children Church Kitchen

Propaganda posters and paintings showed ideal Nazi family

Nazis worried about falling birth rate and wanted racially pure Aryans
Law for the reduction of Unemployment June 1933- interest free loans off 1000 reichmarksnto everuo young....

Most productive mothers- special medal on Hitler's mum birthday

1936- special maternity homes- breeding centres for production of pure Aryan children

Aryan mothers- matched w SS men to have pure bred Ger children

Ger women who held responsibility at work- sacked
Happened to thousands of women doctors and civil servants-1933
Teachers reduced
1936- women and be judges

Hair plait or bun- not dyed
Makeup discouraged and trousers
Slimming bad as babies

Priority to women ment shortage of building houses- families
1930s shortage of workers- women do paid work
1939 more working then 1933
1937- Nazis forced to change clause in marriage loan schemes- can do both

26

Effects of Nazi policy on German culture- bend

Restricted through censorship and propaganda
Eg modern art dismissed as 'degenerate'
Plays and films checked for having suitable themes that promoted Nazi ideals

American music and nightclub banned

Jew stuff banned

Albert Einstein

27

Racial persecution
Ben

Nazis believed Jews inferior
Aryan best

Hitler before power made clear his views on Jews in Meinkamos Posters etc he claimed Jews joined w Communists and led to Ger defeat WW1

When he came into power 1933- only half a mill Jews in Ger, less then 1% of pop
But many had important positions in society in business and professions- doctors lawyers

Impression- ruling
After Anschluss- lots of Jews in capital Vienna

Hitler ordered no policy first but then

Apr 1933- official one day boycott of Jewish shops, lawyers and doctors etc
After this members of SA stood outside shops and physically prevented customers

Anti Jewish propaganda

1935
Numberberg laws
No sex w Aryan
And not citezans

1936- okymupics nothing

1937- Hitler spoke against of Jews and many Jewish businesses seized by Nazis

June- July 1938- Jewish doctors, dentists and layers forbidden to treat Aryans

Oct 1938- J passport

Nov 1938- Kristallnacht

28

Explain Kristallnatch

Happen after Jewish youth shot and killed German embassy official in Paris (as got legged his family expelled from Ger in harsh conditions)

Goebbals said should be demonstrations against Jews night 9 Nov

Violence encouraged 8000 Jewish shops and homes and synagogues in Ger

100 Jews killed
20,000 arrested- concentration camps

Much property rented by Gees from Ger owners
Nazis fined Jewish businesses 1 bill reichmarks
Jewish people- Jewish only school
Worst jobs and encouraged hate

Worse after Anschluss and carried on there

ATTACK ON JEWS POLGOMS

1939- Jews encouraged to emigrate
Not all could afford
Arrests- March 1939
Nearly 30,000 men and boys sent to concentration camps

29

Ben Treatment of undesirables u

Guppies unpop no ref job and moved around

Many Ger happy w Numerberg laws as applied to Gypsies

Inc persecuted 1930s later

Tramos and beggars arrested- force labour

Physical disabilities and mental problempeople sterilising July 1933 inc depressions eplisepsy

Later policies inc euthanasia or 'mercy killing' injections

Worse after war began